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“This Bataan-Cavite Interlink Bridge project will provide a permanent road linkage between the two provinces in Central Luzon and Southern Tagalog Region in order to reduce the journey time and ease traffic congestion through Metro Manila,” Villar said.  


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Website: theverge.com
2020-11-06 21:44:56 UTC

Sony is revealing the new PS5 console hardware design


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But we wouldn't quite swear by the design.


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The Italian graphic designer, or logo guru, as one might say, Emanuele Abrate, shows what fonts some of the most popular brands chose to represent them by replacing names in logos with logo fonts.


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Website: thehill.com
2020-11-13 19:46:42 UTC

Mississippi on Tuesday voted in a new design for its state flag, which had been the last one in the country to feature an image of the Confederate battle flag.


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The proposed order, called “Making Federal Buildings Beautiful Again,” favors classical design for buildings in Washington. It has drawn opposition from architects.


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The panel by the renowned Black artist, part of his “Struggle” series, was last seen in 1960. But someone had a hunch where it was.


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Campaign by colour matching company aims to ‘emboldens people who menstruate to feel proud of who they are’


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GraphicMama has come up with a handy video that shares the biggest graphic design trends of 2020. They’ve conducted a deep research to spot the rise in particular trends which have been popular in the graphic design industry. 2020 has been all about innovative typography, 3D realism, metallic textures, geometric designs, and liquid patterns. Expect […]


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The pandemic already pushed millions to work from home. Many of them will likely go back to a very different office.


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A noted graphic designer, he was an expert in typefaces, developing many himself and “fixing” others. His work adorns this newspaper.


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At this point, we might know nearly everything about them.


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With cases of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) climbing steeply everywhere from Madrid to Manhattan , overwhelming one hospital after another and pushing the global death toll past 17,000, the sprint to find treatments has dramatically accelerated. Drugs that stop the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), could save the lives of severely ill patients, protect health care workers and others at high risk of infection, and reduce the time patients spend in hospital beds. The World Health Organization (WHO) last week announced a major study to compare treatment strategies in a streamlined clinical trial design that doctors around the world can join. Other trials are also underway; all told, at least 12 potential COVID-19 treatments are being tested, including drugs already in use for HIV and malaria, experimental compounds that work against an array of viruses in animal experiments, and antibody-rich plasma from people who have recovered from COVID-19. More than one strategy may prove its worth, and effective treatments may work at different stages of infection, says Thomas Gallagher, a coronavirus researcher at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus. “The big challenge may be at the clinical end determining when to use the drugs.” Researchers want to avoid repeating the mistakes of the 2014–16 West African Ebola epidemic, in which willy-nilly experiments proliferated but randomized clinical trials were set up so late that many ended up not recruiting enough patients. “The lesson is you start trials now,” says Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at New York University's Langone Medical Center. “Make it a part of what you're doing so that you can move rapidly to have the most efficacious interventions come to the front.” To that end, WHO on 20 March announced the launch of SOLIDARITY, an unprecedented, coordinated push to collect robust scientific data rapidly during a pandemic. The study, which could include many thousands of patients in dozens of countries, has emphasized simplicity so that even hospitals overwhelmed by an onslaught of COVID-19 patients can participate. WHO's website will randomize patients to local standard care or one of the four drug regimens, using only ones available at the patient's hospital. Physicians will simply record the day the patient left the hospital or died, the duration of the hospital stay, and whether the patient required oxygen or ventilation. “That's all,” says Ana Maria Henao Restrepo, a medical officer at WHO's Emergencies Programme. The design is not blinded: Patients will know they received a drug candidate, and that could cause a placebo effect, Henao Restrepo concedes. But it is in the interest of speed, she says. “We are doing this in record time.” The agency hopes to start to enroll patients this week. Rather than taking years to develop and test compounds from scratch, WHO and others want to repurpose drugs that are already approved for other diseases and have acceptable safety profiles. They're also looking at experimental drugs that have performed well in animal studies against the other two deadly coronaviruses, which cause SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). And they are focusing on compounds plentiful enough to treat a substantial number of patients. For its study, WHO chose an experimental antiviral called remdesivir; the malaria medication chloroquine (or its chemical cousin hydroxychloroquine); a combination of the HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir; and that combination plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. The treatments would stop the virus by different mechanisms, but each has drawbacks. Remdesivir, developed by Gilead Sciences to combat Ebola and related viruses, shuts down viral replication by inhibiting a key viral enzyme, the RNA polymerase. It didn't help patients with Ebola in a test during the 2019 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. But in 2017, researchers showed in test tube and animal studies that the drug can inhibit the SARS and MERS viruses. The drug, which is given intravenously, has been used in hundreds of COVID-19 patients in the United States and Europe under what's known as compassionate use, which required Gilead to review patient records; some doctors have reported anecdotal evidence of benefit, but no hard data. Gilead says it is now starting to supply remdesivir under a simpler “expanded use” designation. Five other clinical trials underway in China and the United States are testing it and may have preliminary results soon. Of the drugs in the SOLIDARITY trial, “remdesivir has the best potential,” says Shibo Jiang of Fudan University, who works on coronavirus therapeutics. Like most drugs for acute infections, remdesivir may be much more potent if given early, says Stanley Perlman, a coronavirus researcher at the University of Iowa—and that could be a challenge. “What you really want to do is give a drug like that to people who walk in with mild symptoms,” he says. “And you can't do that because it's an [intravenous] drug, it's expensive, and 85 out of 100 people don't need it” because they won't develop severe disease. ![Figure][1] GRAPHIC: V. ALTOUNIAN/ SCIENCE Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have received intense attention because of positive results from small studies and an endorsement from President Donald Trump, who said, “I feel good about it.” The drugs decrease acidity in endosomes, compartments that cells use to ingest outside material and that some viruses co-opt during infection. But SARS-CoV- 2's main entryway is different: It uses its so-called spike protein to attach to a receptor on the surface of human cells. Studies in cell culture have suggested chloroquine can cripple the virus, but the doses needed are usually high and could cause severe toxicity. “Researchers have tried this drug on virus after virus, and it never works out in humans,” says Susanne Herold, an expert on pulmonary infections at the University of Giessen. Results from COVID-19 patients are murky. Chinese researchers who treated more than 100 patients touted chloroquine's benefits in a letter in BioScience , but they did not publish data. And WHO says “no data has been shared” from more than 20 other COVID-19 studies in China using chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. French microbiologist Didier Raoult and colleagues published a study of hydroxychloroquine in 20 COVID-19 patients that concluded the drug had reduced viral load in nasal swabs. (It seemed to work even better with the antibiotic azithromycin.) But the trial, reported in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents , was not randomized, and it didn't report clinical outcomes such as deaths. Hydroxychloroquine might actually do more harm than good. It has many side effects and can, in rare cases, harm the heart—and people with heart conditions are at higher risk of severe COVID-19, says David Smith, an infectious disease physician at the University of California, San Diego. “This is a warning signal, but we still need to do the trial,” he says. There have also been reports of chloroquine poisoning in people who self-medicated. Many coronavirus researchers are similarly skeptical of the lopinavir-ritonavir combination. Abbott Laboratories developed the drugs to inhibit the protease of HIV, an enzyme that cleaves a long protein chain during assembly of new viruses. The combination has worked in marmosets infected with the MERS virus, and has also been tested in patients with SARS and MERS, though those results are ambiguous. But the first trial with COVID-19 was not encouraging. When doctors in Wuhan, China, gave 199 patients standard care with or without lopinavir-ritonavir, the outcomes did not differ significantly, they reported in The New England Journal of Medicine on 15 March. The authors say the patients were very ill and treatment may have started too late. The fourth arm of SOLIDARITY combines these two antivirals with interferon-beta, a molecule involved in regulating inflammation that has lessened disease severity in marmosets infected with MERS. But interferon-beta might be risky for patients with severe COVID-19, Herold says. “If it is given late in the disease it could easily lead to worse tissue damage, instead of helping patients,” she cautions. SOLIDARITY is designed to provide a quick, useful verdict, based on the outcomes that are the most relevant for public health, says virologist Christian Drosten of the Charité University Hospital in Berlin. More detailed data could come from an add-on trial in Europe, announced on 23 March by the French biomedical research agency INSERM. To include 3200 patients, it will test the same drugs, including hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine, and collect additional data such as blood gas levels or lung imaging. Other approved and experimental treatments are in testing against coronavirus or likely soon to be. They include drugs that can reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids and baricitinib, a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Some researchers have high hopes for camostat mesylate, a drug licensed in Japan for pancreatitis, which inhibits a human protein involved with infection. Other antivirals will also get a chance, including the influenza drug favipiravir and additional HIV antiretrovirals. Researchers also plan to try to boost immunity with “convalescent” plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients or monoclonal antibodies directed at SARS-CoV-2. Perlman says the smartest way to test the drugs is in people in early stages of disease who doctors think are most likely to get much worse. How would you determine that? “That is the key question,” he says. Researchers might find a biomarker in blood that helps them predict disease course. Crucially, doctors and researchers around the world are tackling the problem with urgency, Henao Restrepo says. “This is a crisis like no other and we will have to work together,” she says. “That is the only way perhaps we are going to find a solution.” Correction (30 March 2020): Ana Maria Henao Restrepo's role at WHO has been updated. [1]: pending:yes


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Introducing - The House of Holli! An 11-year-old from Stone Mountain, Georgia is creating haute couture designs for herself and her family. During the quarantine, Holli Morgan went viral after her initiative to sew hundreds of masks for homeless people in her area made the news, now she’s taking her talents to another level. Because Of Them We Can spoke with her mother, April Chevon Mcmillian, to learn more about the young fashion designer after she went viral - again - this time when images of the dress she made for her 8-year-old sister, Leila, spread online.  ‘’I am having a college graduation ceremony for myself on November 14th. She wanted to create a show stopping dress for her and her sister to wear,’’ Mcmillian said. ‘’I knew that she was talented and her skills would take her places, but I never knew she was as gifted as she is. I have never seen her so focused and so eager to learn like the way she is about sewing.  The tween has been interested in fashion her whole life, even winning best dressed in pre-kindergarten.  ‘’She began taking lessons at eight. She started at a class called 'Stitch It 2 Em', which taught at-risk youth how to sew,’’ her mom recalled. ‘’Then as time progressed she received private lessons from from Daphania Adams.’’ The beautiful dress Holli made for Leila took her just two and a half hours to make. Leila's reaction, which included a series of selfies and photos posed in the intricate piece made it clear that she loved it.   ''You can't tell [Leila] anything,'' Mcmillian said. ''She was prancing around the house all day with it on. Hence all the selfie pictures in my phone.'' After sharing photos of her daughters online, the post went viral garnering over 20,000 shares. Now Holli has four orders for the same design. ‘’She wants to have [a career in fashion] like JoJo Siwa,’’  Mcmillian shared. ‘’[But] her claim to fame is her masks. She received popularity because she is making 1200 masks for homeless people. So because she committed to making that amount she makes and designs her own clothing between that time." A seamstress with a mission? We love it!  To find out more about Holli or to follow her work visit Holli Hearts Humanity. Photo Credit: April Chevon Mcmillian/Facebook


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COVID-19 is making many bearish about bitumen. Deborah Lawrence’s past pessimism has proven unpopular, and correct.


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Disney Plus’ Marvel section apparently got a much needed design change


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In “The Baptism,” Carrie Mae Weems and Carl Hancock Rux find an abstract, elegiac voice in their video honoring John Lewis and C.T. Vivian.


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"The Shape of Things to Come," an exhibition that's part of Dubai Design Week, is offering a glimpse of the future of architecture, post-pandemic.


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The aerodynamic designs of winged drones are optimized for specific flight regimes. Large lifting surfaces provide maneuverability and agility but result in larger power consumption, and thus lower range, when flying fast compared with small lifting surfaces. Birds like the northern goshawk meet these opposing aerodynamic requirements of aggressive flight in dense forests and fast cruising in the open terrain by adapting wing and tail areas. Here, we show that this morphing strategy and the synergy of the two morphing surfaces can notably improve the agility, maneuverability, stability, flight speed range, and required power of a drone in different flight regimes by means of an avian-inspired drone. We characterize the drone’s flight capabilities for different morphing configurations in wind tunnel tests, optimization studies, and outdoor flight tests. These results shed light on the avian use of wings and tails and offer an alternative design principle for drones with adaptive flight capabilities.


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Follow throughout the day for the latest Man United injury updates, transfer rumours and breaking news.


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Some artists say Desert X AlUla is a step toward changing Saudi society. Critics call the government-funded exhibition “morally corrupt.”


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Lessons from Microsoft, Airbnb, and Oracle.


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The architect David Adjaye discusses his plans for an institution to house the looted treasures on their to return to Nigeria.


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The Westfalia-converted Ford Nugget camper van has gotten a fresh lease on life thanks to the recently updated Transit Custom van that serves as its base. At camp, the new Nugget series features the same space-maximizing four-sleeper design, but it gets to the campground with help from Ford's…


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"Full Bloom" is a new competition with a format similar to "The Great British Baking Show," except these contestants are making eye candy with flowers.


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High above Manhattan, Alicja Kwade’s planetary sculpture captures the music of the spheres.


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No evidence has emerged to explain what happened to the artist, 82, who was last seen at his cliff-side estate on the water.


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Coronavirus vaccines developed by Moderna and Pfizer show highly promising preliminary results in large-scale clinical testing. But key questions remain.


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After a wave of anti-Asian discrimination, the artist Amanda Phingbodhipakkiya wanted to “turn these hurts into something beautiful.” Her panels will transform a Brooklyn subway station.


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Many dance films of recent months have been films by necessity, but the ones in this festival are films by design, for better and worse.


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Cytokines have far-reaching effects on the behavior of immune cells. Given their powerful roles, there has been a long history of trying to harness cytokines as therapeutic drugs for cancer and other diseases. However, there are several problems that severely limit the therapeutic use of cytokines, including their pleiotropic actions and systemic toxicity. Overcoming these issues to create the next generation of cytokine-based therapies will require sophisticated control over their spatial-temporal function. New approaches in protein and cell engineering are emerging that allow distinct and multiple levels at which to program cytokine regulation—from engineering individual cytokines, to cytokine-receptor pairs, and ultimately, more complex cytokine-sensing, -secreting, and -consuming cell circuits. These technologies may confer the ability to precisely sculpt the local cytokine environment, and by doing so, improve the potency of cytokine drugs and deepen our understanding of the language of cytokine communication. The biological function of cytokines is broad, encompassing immune cell proliferation, death, activation, and inhibition. The effects of these secreted signaling molecules depends on their local concentration, which is driven by the rates of cytokine production, diffusion, and consumption. Cytokine-mediated cell-cell communication can be autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine. Together, these core features of cytokine communication are thought to shape the ecosystem of specific tissues or tumors. Perhaps most notable is how this set of secreted factors can achieve such diverse yet highly spatially coordinated physiological outcomes within the complex environment of the body. Interleukins and interferons are cytokines that have clinical relevance in cancer. Direct infusion of cytokines into a tissue can have potent therapeutic effects—killing transformed cells in a tumor or stimulating the expansion and cytotoxic activities of host or adoptively transferred immune cells. So far, two cytokine drugs [interferon-α (IFN-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, and other cancers. Nonetheless, there are fundamental problems that severely limit the therapeutic use of natural cytokines: short circulation half-life, off-target effects, and inherent pleiotropic functions. Clinically, repeated systemic administration of IL-2 at high doses is typically needed to achieve therapeutic response as a result of its short circulation half-life (the serum half-life of IL-2 is ∼90 min). Most seriously, cytokines act as a double-edged sword—they target many cell types. Thus, for example, high dosing regimens of IL-2 elicit severe systemic toxicity because the cytokine accumulates not only in the disease tissue, but also in healthy bystander organs, where IL-2 induces severe adverse effects including vascular leak syndrome and pulmonary edema ([ 1 ][1]). IL-2 causes many changes in immune cells, some that may be desired and some that are therapeutically detrimental. IL-2 acts on multiple immune cells—it drives proliferation of effector T cells, but also stimulates T regulatory cells (Treg) that cause suppressive outcomes. Treg stimulation can promote tumor growth by serving as an IL-2 cytokine sink to deplete the growth factor necessary for effector T cell–mediated antitumor activity, and by directly disarming effector T cells. Much of the existing efforts to engineer improved cytokines have focused on IL-2 because of its long history as a cancer therapeutic target. A more-conventional chemical strategy is to attach IL-2 to moieties such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) to extend its serum half-life. PEGylating IL-2 creates an IL-2 prodrug that mitigates rapid systemic activation upon administration by hindering receptor binding. Once the PEG is slowly released from the prodrug, the active free IL-2 becomes bioavailable over time ([ 2 ][2]). This modified IL-2 showed significantly longer serum half-life and was well tolerated in recent phase 1 trials in patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02983045). Similarly, a PEGylated form of IFN-α showed longer half-life, and was approved by the FDA for the treatment of melanoma. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that these approaches do not sufficiently address the major challenges of systemic toxicity and pleiotropic action. Creating the next generation of cytokine-based therapies that address pleiotropic toxicity will require far greater control over cytokine function. Advances in protein and cell engineering are emerging that provide multiple new levels at which to program the time and space of cytokine-driven immune responses (see the figure). Protein engineering and screening have allowed investigators to more rationally engineer synthetic cytokines with selective bias toward a desired function. Pioneering studies using phage display screens created a human growth hormone (hGH) mutant that bound ∼400 fold more tightly to its receptor than the wild-type form ([ 3 ][3]). Following this example, most cytokine engineering strategies use a combination of directed mutagenesis and library-based screens. For instance, an IL-2 mutant (BAY 50-4798) with reduced affinity for IL-2 receptor-β (IL-2Rβ) showed preferential activation for T cells over natural killer (NK) cells (which can cause toxicity) 3000-fold higher than the wild-type IL-2 ([ 4 ][4]). Even though this mutant was shown to be less toxic when tested in preclinical models, phase 1 trials in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cancer failed to show significant benefit or reduction in side effects over IL-2 ([ 5 ][5]), likely because multiple IL-2–responsive populations can contribute to toxicity. In a different approach, a superagonist form of IL-2, called “Super2,” was engineered to have increased binding affinity for IL-2Rβ, rationalizing that it would preferentially trigger naïve T cells that are otherwise insensitive to IL-2 owing to their low expression of IL-2Rα (which stabilizes IL-2 interaction with IL-2Rβ). Indeed, Super2 showed superior expansion of cytotoxic T cells relative to regulatory T cells than did IL-2 and also reduced pulmonary toxicity in preclinical tumor models ([ 6 ][6]). Building on this work, an entirely new cytokine termed “neo-2/15” was designed in silico that signals through the shared chains of IL-2 and IL-15 receptors (the heterodimer of IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγc) but has no binding sites for their respective private chains (IL-2Rα and IL-15Rα). Bypassing the private receptors allows neo-2/15 to preferentially signal to antitumor lymphocytes. In preclinical tumor models, neo-2/15 shows superior therapeutic activity to IL-2 and reduced toxicity ([ 7 ][7]). Recent efforts in cytokine engineering have also resulted in a “decoy-resistant” IL-18 (DR-18), which maintains native IL-18 signaling but is impervious to inhibition by IL-18 binding peptide (IL-18BP), an endogenous secreted antagonist for wild-type IL-18 ([ 8 ][8]). Unlike IL-18, DR-18 showed effective antitumor effects in mice resistant to immune-checkpoint therapies. Clinical examples of designer cytokines include Pitrakinra, an engineered IL-4 variant that acts as an antagonist. In completed phase 2 trials, Pitrakinra showed some benefits for treating IL–4-associated asthma, with fewer adverse events ([ 9 ][9]). A more radical emerging approach to limiting detrimental cytokine action is to engineer orthogonal cytokine-receptor pairs. This approach entails changing both the cytokine molecule and the way a target cell recognizes the engineered cytokine—an approach that fits well with engineered immune cell therapies [such as adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells], which already involves a commitment to engineering a target effector immune cell. For example, to precisely target IL-2 functions to specific target T cells, an orthogonal IL-2/IL-2R pair (ortho2 and ortho2R, respectively) was developed ([ 10 ][10]). Ortho2 is a mutant IL-2 that can no longer bind to the native IL-2R; similarly, ortho2R is a mutant IL-2R that does not recognize the native IL-2. The ortho2/2R pair are engineered to only interact with each other. Thus, ortho2 stimulates only the complementary T cells that have been engineered to express ortho2R. Although engineering perfect orthogonal pairs with wild-type like potency remains a challenge, this pioneering work shows the power of the approach. In mouse models, ortho2 cytokine-receptor pairs show a high degree of specificity and orthogonality in vivo, suggesting that ortho2 may be a powerful tool to precisely control the proliferation of engineered cells while remaining inert to the endogenous immune system. This concept can be broadly applied to other cytokines and could be used to control CAR T cells or any other engineered therapeutic cell. Moving beyond cytokines that already exist in nature, non-natural cytokines, or “synthekines,” have also been described ([ 11 ][11]). These synthekines do not bind to natural cytokine receptor pairings, but instead assemble non-natural receptor heterodimers that lead to previously undescribed responses. Together, these important advances demonstrate the possibility of going beyond the proteins that our genomes naturally encode and open exciting therapeutic opportunities. An even higher level of emerging engineering involves the creation of new multicellular cytokine systems and circuits. The highly localized action of cytokines originates from the ability of specific cells to read local signals that control both the production and consumption of cytokines—in essence, the immune system sculpts spatial gradients and niches using source and sink cells (in addition to effector cells that read the gradients) ([ 12 ][12]). With our mechanistic understanding of cellular biology and cell-cell communication, it may now be possible to rationally sculpt cytokine gradients, using cells that are synthetically engineered to act as sources and sinks. Engineering such gradients will likely require dynamic and discrete combinations of agonists and antagonists in the forms of cytokines, inhibitors, and cytokine receptors. ![Figure][13] Engineering cytokine communication Emerging protein- and cell-engineering technologies may provide multiple levels at which to program cytokine-driven immune responses. These tools may lead to powerful therapeutics and improve understanding of cytokine-based communication. GRAPHIC: V. ALTOUNIAN/ SCIENCE An early approach to engineering “source cells” has been to design CAR T cells to express proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12), either constitutively or under a CAR-controlled promoter ([ 13 ][14]). Engineering of cytokine consuming “sink” cells can also be a complementary powerful tool for sculpting cytokine milieus. A recent example of this nascent concept is engineered T cells constitutively expressing a nonsignaling membrane-bound IL-6R to effectively deplete IL-6 and thus reduce IL-6–mediated toxicity in mice ([ 14 ][15]). More controlled approaches are emerging in which modular sensing receptors, such as synNotch receptors ([ 15 ][16]), can be used to induce cytokine secretion or consumption in response to local disease or tissue antigen signals, yielding the potential of highly localized and programmable sink or source cells. Such engineered cellular delivery systems may offer one of the best ways to autonomously target and modulate local disease environments (including metastases) to drive antitumor responses and to remodel immunosuppressive responses, especially when combined with engineered autocrine or paracrine signaling that can locally amplify activity through positive feedback. Conversely, similar approaches could be used to create locally suppressed microenvironments in the case of autoimmunity. These concepts are still at an early stage, and much experimental and theoretical validation are needed before they can reach the clinic. As a therapy, it is also important to critically evaluate the timing of intervention during disease progression. Ultimately, these multicellular cytokine control circuits may allow modulation of the expansion and death of engineered and host cells, and tuning the amplitude and duration of cytokines in a precisely targeted local environment. The future for engineered cytokines and cellular circuits is promising given that they could have many advantages compared to current cytokine therapies, including higher specificity, local and tissue-specific actions, and reduced off-target effects. It is expected that these strategies will be broadly impactful in treating other diseases involving inflammatory imbalances, such as autoimmunity, fibrosis, and tissue or wound regeneration. As more attempts are made to sculpt local cytokine microenvironments, deeper understanding of the language and grammar of cytokine-based communication will be gained. 1. [↵][17]1. J. A. Klapper et al ., Cancer 113, 293 (2008). [OpenUrl][18][CrossRef][19][PubMed][20] 2. [↵][21]1. D. H. Charych et al ., Clin. Cancer Res. 22, 680 (2016). [OpenUrl][22][Abstract/FREE Full Text][23] 3. [↵][24]1. H. B. Lowman, 2. J. A. Wells , J. Mol. Biol. 234, 564 (1993). [OpenUrl][25][CrossRef][26][PubMed][27][Web of Science][28] 4. [↵][29]1. A. B. Shanafelt et al ., Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 1197 (2000). [OpenUrl][30][CrossRef][31][PubMed][32][Web of Science][33] 5. [↵][34]1. K. Margolin et al ., Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 3312 (2007). [OpenUrl][35][Abstract/FREE Full Text][36] 6. [↵][37]1. A. M. Levin et al ., Nature 484, 529 (2012). [OpenUrl][38][CrossRef][39][PubMed][40][Web of Science][41] 7. [↵][42]1. D.-A. DSilva et al ., Nature 565, 186 (2019). [OpenUrl][43][CrossRef][44][PubMed][45] 8. [↵][46]1. T. Zhou et al ., Nature 583, 609 (2020). [OpenUrl][47] 9. [↵][48]1. S. Wenzel, 2. D. Wilbraham, 3. R. Fuller, 4. E. B. Getz, 5. M. Longphre , Lancet 370, 1422 (2007). [OpenUrl][49][CrossRef][50][PubMed][51][Web of Science][52] 10. [↵][53]1. J. T. Sockolosky et al ., Science 359, 1037 (2018). [OpenUrl][54][Abstract/FREE Full Text][55] 11. [↵][56]1. I. Moraga et al ., eLife 6, e22882 (2017). [OpenUrl][57][CrossRef][58][PubMed][59] 12. [↵][60]1. A. Oyler-Yaniv et al ., Immunity 46, 609 (2017). [OpenUrl][61][CrossRef][62] 13. [↵][63]1. O. O. Yeku, 2. T. J. Purdon, 3. M. Koneru, 4. D. Spriggs, 5. R. J. Brentjens , Sci. Rep. 7, 10541 (2017). [OpenUrl][64][CrossRef][65] 14. [↵][66]1. A. H. J. Tan, 2. N. Vinanica, 3. D. Campana , Blood Adv. 4, 1419 (2020). [OpenUrl][67] 15. [↵][68]1. K. T. Roybal et al ., Cell 167, 419 (2016). [OpenUrl][69][CrossRef][70][PubMed][71] Acknowledgments: The authors are supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (W.A.L.), the NIH (R01CA196277, P50GM081879, UC4DK116264, U54CA244438), and the Cancer Research Institute (A.W.L.). Thanks to members of the Lim lab and H. El-Samad. W.A.L is adviser to Allogene, a shareholder of Gilead, and has applied for patents on cytokine delivery circuits. A.W.L. is an employee of Lyell. [1]: #ref-1 [2]: #ref-2 [3]: #ref-3 [4]: #ref-4 [5]: #ref-5 [6]: #ref-6 [7]: #ref-7 [8]: #ref-8 [9]: #ref-9 [10]: #ref-10 [11]: #ref-11 [12]: #ref-12 [13]: pending:yes [14]: #ref-13 [15]: #ref-14 [16]: #ref-15 [17]: #xref-ref-1-1 "View reference 1 in text" [18]: 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Several infectious diseases cause considerable mortality worldwide each year: Tuberculosis causes ∼1.2 million deaths, diarrheal disease causes ∼1.5 million deaths, and lower respiratory infections cause ∼700,000 deaths in children under 5 years old ([ 1 ][1]). Yet the scale and speed of innovation in developing tools for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) dwarf the development of those for global infectious diseases, which disproportionally affect resource-limited countries. By August 2020, ∼175 therapeutics and vaccines were in clinical trials for COVID-19 ([ 2 ][2]). By contrast, for 41 global infectious diseases or disease groups, only ∼250 therapeutics and vaccines were in clinical trials in August 2019 ([ 3 ][3]). A robust product pipeline and abridged development time frame for COVID-19 has primarily been enabled by three factors: scientific advances, operational efficiencies, and large-scale at-risk financing. A clear, well-financed path from research through product procurement now exists for COVID-19, shortening timelines while increasing output. This could underpin an approach for global infectious diseases. Recent scientific advances have revolutionized platform technologies and expanded the ability to rapidly identify therapeutic and vaccine candidates. High-throughput computational screening of molecular libraries against key pathogens and/or host targets has accelerated the ability to repurpose agents and identify entities against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19) ([ 4 ][4]). Candidate compounds with existing clinical safety data quickly entered clinical trials, leading to the repurposing of dexamethasone and remdesivir to treat hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can potentially provide near-immediate therapy and/or prophylaxis by bypassing the need for a host-generated immune response ([ 5 ][5]), and at lower costs and higher volumes than previously assumed. Vaccines have benefited from innovations in vector modalities, manufacturing, antigen design, computational biology, protein engineering, and gene synthesis ([ 6 ][6]). Such innovations may provide the technological basis for targeting other global infectious diseases. In response to COVID-19, the public health and regulatory communities are streamlining clinical development. Independently funded, designed, and conducted platform clinical trials, such as Accelerating COVID-19 Therapeutic Interventions and Vaccines (ACTIV), are structured under a single, adaptive “master” protocol to allow for continuous and consistent evaluation of multiple drug candidates, adding products as they become available and removing candidates as they are deemed futile. They also provide access to large, geographically diverse populations, and some have created or expanded operational structures in resource-limited countries ([ 7 ][7]). Timelines have been shortened because of accelerated regulatory reviews, flexible requirements to enter first-in-human trials, newer approaches to modeling population-specific issues, early approval mechanisms, and enhanced regulatory harmonization among countries ([ 8 ][8]). This increased efficiency in clinical trial execution and regulatory processes could be applied to other global infectious diseases. Historically, investment in product development for global infectious diseases has been restricted owing to the lack of financial returns compared to more profitable areas of drug development, such as oncology. However, the threat that pandemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) pose to the global economy, political stability, and people's lives has stimulated the private sector, public sector, and philanthropic groups to devote considerable financial and human resources to product development. Previous HCoV outbreaks led to initial development activities that were accelerated with COVID-19. Supplementing these efforts, the U.S. government has provided over $10 billion for COVID-19 therapeutics and vaccines. Other governments, including the European Union, United Kingdom, Germany, and Canada, are making substantial financial commitments, as are large funding institutions ([ 2 ][2]). A fundamental principle behind this unprecedented funding is that financing for the entire product development process is made by the time a candidate enters early-stage clinical trials ([ 9 ][9]). This approach has mitigated the range of risks faced by different categories of developers (e.g., academia, nonprofit organizations, public-private partnerships, small biotechnology companies, and large multinational pharmaceutical companies) who may individually have widely varying risk-reward calculations. As a result, developers can simultaneously prepare for late-stage clinical trials, implement scaling up of manufacturing processes, and obtain advanced purchase commitments of large-scale supply—all during first-in-human clinical trials ([ 9 ][9]). Together, providing the full range of financing as early as possible in the product development process, articulating the need for multiple products, and acknowledging implicit failure of some candidates and platforms have overcome product development barriers. The result has been an extraordinary scale of therapeutic and vaccine development in the shortest time possible. A similar product development framework could be created for global infectious diseases. Such a framework could attempt to resolve three long-standing challenges for these diseases: the lack of interest in developing products, resulting in a diminished initial pipeline of candidates; the large pipeline attrition points between preclinical activities and early-stage clinical trials and between early- and late-stage clinical trials ([ 10 ][10]) that occur because of the considerable increases in development costs of these two transition points; and the extended timelines for product development. If these challenges are addressed, a more robust initial pipeline could be created, more candidates could advance to early- and late-stage clinical trials, and more products could be approved in a shorter period. A robust pipeline for global infectious diseases should include repurposed agents, mAbs, new chemical entities, and vaccines. Each of these categories possess strengths and limitations; thus, each may not prove beneficial for every disease. Repurposed agents may have existing preclinical data and clinical safety experience, putting them on the fastest development timelines. mAbs targeting proteins encoded by highly conserved regions of a pathogen's genome—thereby minimizing escape mutations and maximizing strain coverage—can be isolated from patients and modified to enhance their activities, for example, to extend half-life and induce host immune responses. New chemical entities could target families of pathogens to create “one-drug-multiple-bug” approaches to replace “one-drug-one-bug” approaches. Traditional vaccine platforms have a history of clinical validation and scaled production capacity. Emerging nucleic acid–based vaccine systems have promise for generating a candidate upon availability of a genomic sequence. Several factors must be considered to rapidly build and advance such a pipeline. Arguably the most critical factor is to incentivize all development groups and encourage aggressive competition. Public sector and philanthropic financing should address the cost of research, clinical trials, manufacturing, and supply agreements, and such financing should be available at the earliest possible part of the product development process. This is essential to overcome developers' decision to avoid product development because of lack of a clear revenue model. This financing, in turn, could stimulate the levels of investment and activity from the private sector observed in COVID-19, including public-private partnerships to advance candidates. A fundamental biological understanding of coronaviruses existed prior to COVID-19 and is necessary to drive product development, but a similar biological understanding needs to be improved for many global infectious diseases ([ 11 ][11]). While under development for COVID-19, predictive, validated preclinical assays, animal models, and human challenge models for infectious diseases would provide faster, cost-efficient methods to eliminate candidates earlier in the development cycle ([ 12 ][12], [ 13 ][13]). Moreover, implementing high-quality, decentralized clinical trials and using existing clinical trial networks could reduce the need for each developer to create complex multicountry clinical trial processes and infrastructure while still maintaining consistent evaluation methods ([ 14 ][14]). Machine learning could help optimize clinical trial design and identify populations most likely to benefit from a candidate, thereby reducing the large sample sizes currently required for late-stage clinical trials ([ 15 ][15]). Consideration should be given to what accelerated and flexible regulatory processes may be adopted from COVID-19, and which regulatory agencies should serve as benchmark approvals for those diseases that predominantly affect resource-limited settings. The manufacturing supply chain may need to be improved for some technologies facing global constraints. Additionally, access, affordability, and availability will need to be addressed to ensure that innovations reach the populations in greatest need. Implementing this strategy is not without risk, and there are challenges to overcome. Development of predictive models and biomarkers has proved difficult with COVID-19. The risk-benefit assessment for accelerated first-in-human testing during an unfolding pandemic may differ compared to that for endemic pathogens. Global capacity for late-stage clinical trials may initially be reached quickly in resource-limited settings. As seen with hydroxychloroquine, early approvals based on limited evidence can occur with compounds that ultimately demonstrate no benefit. The advanced financing available for COVID-19 candidates partially emerged from country-specific interests and, if repeated, may continue to foster inequitable access to new tools globally. Ultimately, the SARS-CoV-2 product development model may need optimization to realistically achieve success across multiple global infectious diseases. Of the ∼250 therapeutics and vaccines in clinical development for global infectious diseases, ∼30% are for HIV and AIDS ([ 3 ][3]). The innovation in antiretroviral medicines was initially sparked by strong political will coupled with streamlined regulatory processes. Growing demand produced attractive returns from resource-wealthy countries. By contrast, the distinct regulatory pathways and government funding to address the growing problem of resistance to antimicrobial agents (such as antibiotics) could not overcome the lack of a revenue model, thereby bankrupting companies that successfully developed safe and efficacious therapies and curtailing development activities. For the recent outbreak of Zika virus beginning in 2015 in the Americas, the time frame from identification of genomic sequences to advancing a nucleic acid vaccine into phase 1 clinical trials occurred within 4 months; but the threat to high-income countries quickly subsided, resulting in stalled product development programs. After nearly 40 years of continuous outbreaks in Africa, the potential global spread of Ebola became evident during the 2014–2016 outbreak and spurred public-private partnerships that recently achieved approval of two vaccines and one therapeutic mAb combination (with a second, single therapeutic mAb under regulatory review). Resource-limited countries are experiencing combined morbidity and mortality impacts from COVID-19: from the disease itself and from other global infectious diseases, owing, in large part, to diversion of resources. Which candidates in clinical trials for COVID-19 will reach regulatory approval, what limitations may come with licensed candidates, and the success of emerging technology platforms are all unknown. However, COVID-19 forced the world to construct a new product development approach, taking what was previously perceived as impossible and turning it into reality. How to implement this approach to address other global infectious diseases that continue to curtail global economic growth and devastate humanity must now be decided. 1. [↵][16]1. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation , Global Burden of Disease Study 2019; . 2. [↵][17]1. Policy Cures Research , COVID-19 R&D Tracker Update: 6 August 2020; . 3. [↵][18]1. Policy Cures Research , Neglected Diseases R&D Pipeline Tracker—August 2019; . 4. [↵][19]1. D. E. Gordon et al ., Nature 583, 459 (2020). [OpenUrl][20][CrossRef][21][PubMed][22] 5. [↵][23]1. M. Marovich, 2. J. R. Mascola, 3. M. S. Cohen , JAMA 324, 131 (2020). [OpenUrl][24][CrossRef][25][PubMed][26] 6. [↵][27]1. B. S. Graham , Science 368, 945 (2020). [OpenUrl][28][Abstract/FREE Full Text][29] 7. [↵][30]1. L. Corey, 2. J. R. Mascola, 3. A. S. Fauci, 4. F. S. Collins , Science 368, 948 (2020). [OpenUrl][31][Abstract/FREE Full Text][32] 8. [↵][33]1. J. L. Wilson et al ., Sci. Transl. Med. 12, eaax2550 (2020). 9. [↵][34]1. M. Slaoui, 2. M. Hepburn, , N. Engl. J. Med. 383, 1701 (2020). [OpenUrl][35] 10. [↵][36]1. R. Rappuoli, 2. S. Black, 3. D. E. Bloom , Sci. Transl. Med. 11, eaaw2888 (2019). [OpenUrl][37][FREE Full Text][38] 11. [↵][39]1. M. De Rycker, 2. B. Baragaña, 3. S. L. Duce, 4. I. H. Gilbert , Nature 559, 498 (2018). [OpenUrl][40][CrossRef][41] 12. [↵][42]1. J. Cohen , Science 368, 221 (2020). [OpenUrl][43][Abstract/FREE Full Text][44] 13. [↵][45]1. N. Eyal, 2. M. Lipsitch, 3. P. G. Smith , J. Infect. Dis. 221, 1752 (2020). [OpenUrl][46][PubMed][22] 14. [↵][47]1. COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition , Lancet 395, 1322 (2020). [OpenUrl][48][PubMed][22] 15. [↵][49]1. W. R. Zame et al ., Stat. Biopharm. Res. 10.1080/19466315.2020.1797867 (2020). Acknowledgments: Thanks to D. Gollaher, B. Hubby, M. Kamarck, I. Pleasure, S. Shome, H. W. Virgin, C. Wells, and G. Yamey for their insightful comments. R.G. is an employee and owns shares of Vir Biotechnology, Inc. The author's opinions expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect Vir's official policy. 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Global biodiversity policy is at a crossroads. Recent global assessments of living nature ([ 1 ][1], [ 2 ][2]) and climate ([ 3 ][3]) show worsening trends and a rapidly narrowing window for action. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has recently announced that none of the 20 Aichi targets for biodiversity it set in 2010 has been reached and only six have been partially achieved ([ 4 ][4]). Against this backdrop, nations are now negotiating the next generation of the CBD's global goals [see supplementary materials (SM)], due for adoption in 2021, which will frame actions of governments and other actors for decades to come. In response to the goals proposed in the draft post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) made public by the CBD ([ 5 ][5]), we urge negotiators to consider three points that are critical if the agreed goals are to stabilize or reverse nature's decline. First, multiple goals are required because of nature's complexity, with different facets—genes, populations, species, deep evolutionary history, ecosystems, and their contributions to people—having markedly different geographic distributions and responses to human drivers. Second, interlinkages among these facets mean that goals must be defined and developed holistically rather than in isolation, with potential to advance multiple goals simultaneously and minimize trade-offs between them. Third, only the highest level of ambition in setting each goal, and implementing all goals in an integrated manner, will give a realistic chance of stopping—and beginning to reverse—biodiversity loss by 2050. Achieving this will require prompt and concerted measures to address the causes of biodiversity loss ([ 6 ][6]), meaning that implementation will be crucial. The draft GBF ([ 5 ][5]) has advanced conceptually relative to its predecessor by highlighting the importance of outcome-oriented goals (i.e., what we want the state of nature to be in 2050 in terms of, for example, species extinction rates or ecosystem area and integrity ). These outcome goals link the broad aspirational vision (“living in harmony with nature”; see SM) to the concrete actions needed to achieve it. The outcome goals—operationalized by more specific targets and assessed using indicators—provide a compass for directing actions and a way of checking their results; for example, whether meeting a set of action-based targets (e.g., designating X% of Earth's surface as protected areas) delivers on a desired outcome (e.g., “no net loss in the area and integrity of natural ecosystems” ) needed to realize the aspirational vision. It is more important than ever that the necessary outcomes are incorporated in the GBF and that they adequately cover the distinct facets of nature, are sufficiently ambitious, and are grounded in the best knowledge available. Various proposals for the new CBD outcome goals have focused on individual facets of nature, such as ecosystems ([ 7 ][7]), species ([ 8 ][8]), or genetic diversity ([ 9 ][9]). What has been missing is a unified view on how these facets relate to each other in setting goals to achieve the CBD's 2050 vision. To address this gap, we surveyed, evaluated, and discussed published proposals of goals for ecosystems, species, genetic diversity, and nature's contributions to people (NCP) in relation to the empirical and theoretical knowledge in the scientific literature. Our evaluation addresses whether proposed goals encompass, are consistent with, or are opposed to each other; whether they are sufficiently ambitious such that meeting them will indeed curb and reverse biodiversity trends; and whether they contain all the elements needed to make them difficult to “game” (i.e., avoid making substantial contributions by exploiting weaknesses in wording) (see SM for details on our analysis). As the failure to achieve the CBD's single 2010 goal—to substantially reduce the rate of biodiversity loss—shows, having an “apex” goal does not guarantee success. Whereas the mission of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) focuses on one main outcome—preventing dangerous climate change, for which one goal and indicator (well below 2°C) provide a reasonable proxy for the others—CBD's vision and mission have three components that are distinct, complementary, and often trade off with each other: conserving nature, using it sustainably, and (though we do not consider this component here) sharing its benefits equitably. The nature conservation component is itself complex because biodiversity includes variation in life at all levels, from genes to ecosystems. Recognizing this, the proposed formulation of the GBF ([ 5 ][5]) (see SM) started by proposing separate goals that explicitly covered ecosystems, species, genetic diversity, and the contributions to people derived from them. Whether this structure is retained, or the necessary outcomes for these facets are instead subsumed into more overarching goals, our analysis (see SM) shows that all these facets need to be addressed explicitly because of how they interrelate. If the facets were nested into one another like Russian dolls, or at least nearly so, then a single concise goal that specifies one number about the most encompassing facet could cover all of them. However, although the facets of nature are deeply interlinked, they are far from neatly nested and represent instead a “minimum set” ([ 10 ][10], [ 11 ][11]). As a result, there is no single goal based on any one facet that would, if realized, guarantee by itself that the necessary outcome for the other facets would be achieved ([ 12 ][12], [ 13 ][13]). Another reason for having multiple goals is “Goodhart's law”: Whenever a measure becomes a policy goal itself, it ceases to be a good measure of the true state of the system because it can be “gamed” ([ 14 ][14]). For example, incentives would favor actions to enhance the targeted metric irrespective of effects on the rest of nature. Given nature's multidimensionality, this approach would cause inefficient use of resources at best and possibly promote perverse outcomes ([ 14 ][14]). If the CBD enshrined an “apex” goal focusing on a single facet of nature, other facets may be relegated to the back seat. By incentivizing holistic actions, a framework with multiple goals reduces the risk that the goals could be achieved without also achieving the overarching vision that they were intended to serve. ![Figure][15] Sustainability at the crossroads Columns show different facets of nature and their contributions to people (NCP). Each cell shows a potential goal (in bold) at a particular level of ambition in attaining it and some consequences of reaching it, including effects on the other facets of nature and NCP. Only the scenario in green would contribute substantially to “bending the curve” of biodiversity loss. See supplementary materials for further details. The interdependence of ecosystems, species, genetic diversity, and NCP offers the opportunity to design policies and actions that contribute to multiple goals simultaneously. This offers the possibility for mutually reinforcing goals, in which progress toward one goal also advances the others, even though each facet of nature will also require targeted actions to address its specificities (see SM). For example, restoring ecosystems that are species-rich, have many endemics, and store large amounts of carbon, such as tropical peatlands, contributes toward all goals. The downside of this interdependence is that failure to achieve one goal will likely undermine others in a negative mutually reinforcing cycle: Ongoing loss of area and integrity of tropical peatlands leads to global extinctions and reduces options for climate mitigation; climate change then causes further loss of ecosystems, species, populations, genetic diversity, and NCP (see SM). Although the scientific and management communities have been long aware of interactions among biodiversity goals and targets, these linkages have not been sufficiently operationalized ([ 11 ][11]). We highlight the need for the connectedness, partial dependence, and imperfect nesting of nature's facets to be built right from the start in the design of outcome goals, targets, indicators, and actions. In addition to addressing different facets of nature, goals must be set across the whole gradient from “natural” to “managed” ecosystems, attending to the specificities of these different landscapes (see SM). Holistically designed goals on ecosystems, species, genetic diversity, and NCP are necessary to achieve the 2050 vision; whether they are sufficient will depend on the level of ambition that these goals reflect. Even perfect implementation cannot make up for outcome goals set too low or too narrowly at the start. Different levels of ambition are, for example, whether the curve of biodiversity loss will bend (high ambition) or merely flatten (low), or whether no net loss of ecosystems is specified with a lax (low) or strict (high) criterion for replaceability (see SM). The interdependence among facets of nature means that missing a goal for one facet risks also missing goals related to other facets, whereas achieving each goal at a sufficient ambition level can contribute to reaching the others. Our synthesis of the evidence (see the figure, and SM) illustrates that the CBD's 2050 vision is feasible only by aiming high with each of the goals. Lower levels of ambition will deliver inadequate outcomes, including loss in area and integrity of ecosystems, more global extinctions, reduced abundance and performance of many important species, loss of genetic diversity, and reduced benefits to people. This would not only compromise the objectives of the CBD but also undermine progress toward most of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Climate Agreement ([ 1 ][1]). The stakes are high. Our arguments for setting multiple goals do not mean that there is no place for a compelling and unifying overarching vision. Collective action over more than a century offers a clear lesson: To gain political traction, any unifying vision needs to be a rallying cry—broad, normative, inspirational, and aspirational. The CBD process has already set such clear vision: “living in harmony with nature.” The goals underpinning the vision, by contrast, need to be unambiguous and strongly based on the best available knowledge to make it possible to derive SMART (specific, measurable, assignable, realistic, time-related) operational targets ([ 15 ][16]) from them. In sum, one compelling overarching vision, buttressed by facet-specific goals that are mutually reinforcing, scientifically tractable, and individually traceable, will deliver the overarching vision more reliably than any single-facet goal. Using a single-facet goal as the only flagship of global biodiversity policy is analogous to using blood pressure or body mass index as the sole surrogate for the vision of “vibrant health”: simple but risky. The main challenge ahead lies not in the number of goals but rather in making them happen. However many goals are in the GBF, their specific wording and the supporting framework of targets and indicators will be equally influential on global policy. This wording will be decided by the governments at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the CBD in 2021. We summarize critical elements emerging from our analysis that we hope delegates will consider when establishing the GBF, intended to help maximize positive impacts of each goal and minimize perverse interpretations (see the box). ![Figure][15] Key considerations for 2050 biodiversity goals The following key elements are essential for the new post-2020 Convention on Biological Diversity goals. If not fully expressed in the actual goals, they should structure the action targets and indicator framework. To clarify their ambition and enable tracking of legitimate progress, all goals need to have clear reference years (e.g., 2020). For detailed explanations and supporting references, see supplementary materials. We have deliberately focused on how the different facets of nature and their contributions to people should look in 2030 and 2050 to achieve the CBD 2050 vision (with 2030 seen as reflecting crucial “stepping stones” in the right direction toward 2050). We have not evaluated the economic and political consequences of the proposed goals nor the governance and distributional challenges of their implementation. In the case of NCP, we focused on their generation rather than on how they are accessed to meet actual needs and therefore result (or not) in people's good quality of life. Implementing actions to achieve these outcomes without considering social and political issues would be a recipe for further failure. We thus provide just one piece of the formidable puzzle that must be resolved. But it is an essential piece: what could be effective from the biological perspective, provided that the right actions are implemented and all relevant actors are involved in pursuing them. Actions to implement these goals will need to tackle the indirect socioeconomic drivers (and underlying value systems) at the root of nature's decline as well as the direct proximal drivers on which conservation has mostly focused to date ([ 1 ][1]). Only then will the 2050 vision have a chance. We exhort the parties to be ambitious in setting their goals, and holistic in their actions afterward, to transition to a better and fairer future for all life on Earth. [science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6515/411/suppl/DC1][17] 1. [↵][18]1. S. Dèaz et al Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES), “The global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services: Summary for policymakers,” S. Dèaz et al., Eds. (IPBES secretariat, Bonn, 2019). 2. [↵][19]1. S. Díaz et al ., Science 366, eaax3100 (2019). [OpenUrl][20][Abstract/FREE Full Text][21] 3. [↵][22]1. A. 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We thank the following contributors to the Report to the CBD Synthesizing the Scientific Evidence to Inform the Development of the Post-2020 Global Framework on Biodiversity, on which this article builds: J. Bascompte, J. Cariño, N. Castañeda-Alvarez, M. Azeredo de Dornelas, S. Hoban, S. Jones, P. Jordano, L. Laikre, N. Maxted, P. Miloslavich, D. Moreno-Mateos, R. Ogden, G. Segelbacher, J.-C. Svenning. We also thank members of the Future Earth GRP EvolvES (formerly bioGENESIS): M. Bellon, L. Colli, F. Forest, M. Johnson, R. Kassen, C. Souffreau, and E. Vázquez-Domínguez. We thank D. Cooper for useful discussions and for advice in the design of the meeting. We thank Georgina M. Mace for discussions about this paper and countless others and for her wonderful and generous leadership, insight, support, and example over many years; we will miss her greatly. 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Salt marsh ecosystems and the seascapes in which they are embedded serve as critical habitats for species harvested by fisheries ([ 1 ][1]), which provide food and economic security for hundreds of millions of people ([ 2 ][2]). Historical marsh losses coupled with increasing pressures from coastal development and climate change place these intertidal ecosystems and surrounding uplands under growing threat ([ 3 ][3]). Preventing further losses of salt marshes and associated fisheries production will require greater public awareness and difficult choices in coastal policy and management, underpinned by greater understanding of marsh function. Quantifying the value of salt marsh habitat to fisheries production is challenging. Many fisheries species feed and shelter in the salt marsh only as juveniles, and it is difficult to assess the marsh's effect once they have moved to a new location ([ 1 ][1]). It is also unclear how marsh landscape fragmentation under sea level rise will affect fisheries; it may boost fishery production, at least temporarily ([ 4 ][4]), but it could also disrupt food web processes that support fisheries ([ 5 ][5]). Projections of marsh expansion offer hope ([ 6 ][6]) but are largely dependent on changes in coastal watershed management. For instance, human development may prevent marshes from migrating upland with sea level rise and thus lead to marsh drowning ([ 7 ][7]). Adequate sediment supply is also essential for marsh resilience, but many coastal areas in the world are sediment-starved ([ 8 ][8]). Much effort has been made to restore natural riverine flow and other sources of sediment delivery into marshes, although such efforts may have negative impacts on the very fisheries these marshes support ([ 9 ][9]). To design effective policies for salt marsh restoration and conservation that protect fisheries production, we need to better understand the role of salt marshes. Researchers should continue to explore the fundamental linkages between salt marshes and fisheries ([ 10 ][10]), the marsh habitat value within the context of the interconnected and increasingly urbanized mosaic of coastal ecosystems, and the value of salt marshes created by upland transgression and active engineering. Restoration and conservation planning must take a long-term view that specifically recognizes sea level rise and its interaction with other anthropogenic stressors. 1. [↵][11]1. M. W. Beck et al ., Bioscience 51, 633 (2001). [OpenUrl][12][CrossRef][13][Web of Science][14] 2. [↵][15]1. J. C. Rice, 2. S. M. Garcia , ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 1343 (2011). [OpenUrl][16][CrossRef][17] 3. [↵][18]1. K. B. Gedan, 2. B. R. Silliman, 3. M. D. Bertness , Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 117 (2009). [OpenUrl][19][CrossRef][20][Web of Science][21] 4. [↵][22]1. E. J. Chesney, 2. D. M. Baltz, 3. R. G. Thomas , Ecol. Appl. 10, 350 (2000). [OpenUrl][23] 5. [↵][24]1. G. A. Hyndes et al ., Biol. Rev. 89, 232 (2014). [OpenUrl][25][CrossRef][26] 6. [↵][27]1. M. Schuerch et al ., Nature 561, 231 (2018). [OpenUrl][28][CrossRef][29][PubMed][30] 7. [↵][31]1. J. Fitzsimons, 2. M. W. Beck, 3. L. Hale, 4. K. Leo, 5. C. Gillies , Ocean Coast. Manag. 175, 180 (2019). [OpenUrl][32] 8. [↵][33]1. M. L. Kirwan et al ., Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L23401 (2010). [OpenUrl][34][CrossRef][35] 9. [↵][36]1. T. J. Mozdzer, 2. E. B. Watson, 3. W. H. Orem, 4. C. Swarzenski, 5. R. E. Turner , Sci. Tot. Environ. 743, 140420 (2020). [OpenUrl][37] 10. [↵][38]1. J. S. Lefcheck et al ., Conserv. Lett. 12, e12645, (2019). [OpenUrl][39] [1]: #ref-1 [2]: #ref-2 [3]: #ref-3 [4]: #ref-4 [5]: #ref-5 [6]: #ref-6 [7]: #ref-7 [8]: #ref-8 [9]: #ref-9 [10]: #ref-10 [11]: #xref-ref-1-1 "View reference 1 in text" [12]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DBioscience%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1641%252F0006-3568%25282001%2529051%255B0633%253ATICAMO%255D2.0.CO%253B2%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [13]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1641/0006-3568(2001)051[0633:TICAMO]2.0.CO;2&link_type=DOI [14]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000170683500008&link_type=ISI [15]: #xref-ref-2-1 "View reference 2 in text" [16]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DICES%2BJ.%2BMar.%2BSci.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1093%252Ficesjms%252Ffsr041%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [17]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1093/icesjms/fsr041&link_type=DOI [18]: #xref-ref-3-1 "View reference 3 in text" [19]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DAnnu.%2BRev.%2BMar.%2BSci.%26rft.volume%253D1%26rft.spage%253D117%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1146%252Fannurev.marine.010908.163930%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [20]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1146/annurev.marine.010908.163930&link_type=DOI [21]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=000267421700006&link_type=ISI [22]: #xref-ref-4-1 "View reference 4 in text" [23]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DEcol.%2BAppl.%26rft.volume%253D10%26rft.spage%253D350%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [24]: #xref-ref-5-1 "View reference 5 in text" [25]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DBiol.%2BRev.%26rft.volume%253D89%26rft.spage%253D232%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1111%252Fbrv.12055%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [26]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1111/brv.12055&link_type=DOI [27]: #xref-ref-6-1 "View reference 6 in text" [28]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNature%26rft.volume%253D561%26rft.spage%253D231%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1038%252Fs41586-018-0476-5%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F30209368%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [29]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1038/s41586-018-0476-5&link_type=DOI [30]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=30209368&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F370%2F6517%2F670.1.atom [31]: #xref-ref-7-1 "View reference 7 in text" [32]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DOcean%2BCoast.%2BManag.%26rft.volume%253D175%26rft.spage%253D180%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [33]: #xref-ref-8-1 "View reference 8 in text" [34]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DGeophys.%2BRes.%2BLett.%26rft.volume%253D37%26rft.spage%253DL23401%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1029%252F2010GL045489%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [35]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1029/2010GL045489&link_type=DOI [36]: #xref-ref-9-1 "View reference 9 in text" [37]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DSci.%2BTot.%2BEnviron.%26rft.volume%253D743%26rft.spage%253D140420%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [38]: #xref-ref-10-1 "View reference 10 in text" [39]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DConserv.%2BLett.%26rft.volume%253D12%26rft.spage%253D12645e%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx


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218

Indigenous female astronomers are teaching us how to look at the night sky, see our world and our place in it.


Engagement score
217

Quantum computers potentially have computational power greater than that of their classical counterparts. The recent demonstration of “quantum supremacy” on Google's 53-qubit Sycamore quantum processor ([ 1 ][1]) has reinforced this idea, but it remains unknown whether the next generation of quantum computers will be able to solve classically intractable problems of practical interest. On page 1084 of this issue, Google AI Quantum and Collaborators ([ 2 ][2]) take steps toward answering this question with an experimental implementation of Hartree-Fock calculations of molecular electronic energies on a superconducting processor. Although the calculations performed are also efficient to run on classical computers, the experiment demonstrates many of the key building blocks for quantum chemistry simulation and paves the way toward achieving quantum advantage for problems of chemical interest. Using controllable quantum systems to simulate quantum mechanical problems in chemistry and physics was the brainchild of Richard Feynman, who remarked in the 1980s that “If you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy” ([ 3 ][3]). Since then, there has been substantial theoretical and experimental progress toward this goal. In particular, the rapid recent development of superconducting qubits, such as Google's Sycamore quantum processor, has enabled quantum supremacy, which samples from the outputs of random quantum circuits more efficiently than appears possible with even the largest classical supercomputers ([ 1 ][1]). ![Figure][4] A variational quantum eigensolver A parameterized quantum circuit, with properly prepared initial states and with the aid of a classical co-processer, approximates the wave function of a chemical compound. The circuit corresponds to the one used for six-qubit Hartree-Fock calculation. GRAPHIC: JOSHUA BIRD/ SCIENCE The authors investigate the performance of this same processor to determine the electronic structure of molecular systems. Such an accomplishment would have academic as well as commercial value, as it could enable the design of improved catalysts or new medicines. Since the first quantum algorithm for quantum computational chemistry was proposed in 2005 ([ 4 ][5]), there have been numerous developments to reduce its computational cost ([ 5 ][6], [ 6 ][7]). One of the most influential developments is that of the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE), which reduces the burden on the quantum processor by leveraging a classical coprocessor ([ 7 ][8]) (see the figure). Prior proof-of-principle VQE experiments have realized electronic structure calculations with up to six qubits ([ 8 ][9]). It is still an open question as to whether the VQE can solve classically intractable instances of the electronic structure problem, which may require on the order of 100 qubits. As the problem size increases, so too does the quantum circuit depth (the number of layers of gates; five in the figure) required to realize the quantum algorithm. Even if the quality of the qubits is maintained while the processor is scaled up, larger processors with deeper circuits will lead to an increased error rate for the calculation. Assessing whether this build-up of errors is fatal for the VQE is one of the most pressing open questions in the field of quantum computing. The authors take steps to address these open questions through an experimental VQE implementation using 6 to 12 qubits. The experiment implements the Hartree-Fock method for calculating the binding energy of hydrogen chains and the isomerization of diazene. The Hartree-Fock method provides approximate solutions to the electronic structure problem and is a classically tractable calculation. It is typically used as an initial step in quantum computational approaches to solving the electronic structure problem. Nonetheless, this VQE experiment demonstrates many of the key components for large-scale VQE implementations, including electronic state preparation, Hamiltonian measurement for any one- and two-particle reduced-density matrix elements, two error mitigation techniques, and outer-loop classical optimization. Together, these features lead to the successful extension of prior investigations into quantum computational chemistry. The techniques demonstrated in this work will likely form the foundation of future VQE experiments targeting classically intractable systems. Perhaps the most important conclusions from the work of the authors are the necessity of tailoring algorithms to the quantum processor and the importance of error mitigation techniques. Because near-term quantum devices typically have restricted realizable gates, the ability to compile the circuit for a given architecture is crucial for simulation efficiency and accuracy. The methods showcased by the authors for realizing electronic states with nearest-neighbor gates shed light on how to implement more complicated calculations with restricted hardware topologies. Even with the compilation methods discussed above, the presence of noise in these calculations is still a pressing issue. The authors show how to obtain accurate results despite this noise through the use of error mitigation strategies. The techniques used in this work are specialized for quantum simulations, exploiting particle conservation through local density matrix information and the N -representability conditions of fermionic systems. For the 12-qubit calculation with 72 two-qubit gates, the combined error mitigation techniques effectively improve the raw-state fidelity to >99%, which represents an increase of about two orders of magnitude. Whether noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers will be able to surpass classical supercomputers in solving chemistry problems has become one of the most exciting questions in quantum computing. Preliminary calculations on small- and intermediate-sized systems have verified the feasibility of the most promising quantum algorithms. However, further work is needed to enable similar calculations to be performed for system sizes that are greater by one to two orders of magnitude. Experimentally, quantum devices need to be scaled up to hundreds or even thousands of qubits. The characterization of errors should be improved alongside a reduction in error rates. Theoretically, we seek more efficient algorithms and more effective error mitigation techniques, especially ones tailored for specific problems and quantum devices. 1. [↵][10]1. F. Arute et al ., Nature 574, 505 (2019). [OpenUrl][11][CrossRef][12][PubMed][13] 2. [↵][14]1. Google AI Quantum and Collaborators et al ., Science 369, 1084 (2020). [OpenUrl][15][Abstract/FREE Full Text][16] 3. [↵][17]1. R. P. Feynman , Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 467 (1982). [OpenUrl][18][CrossRef][19][Web of Science][20] 4. [↵][21]1. A. Aspuru-Guzik et al ., Science 309, 1704 (2005). [OpenUrl][22][Abstract/FREE Full Text][23] 5. [↵][24]1. S. McArdle, 2. S. Endo, 3. A. Aspuru-Guzik, 4. S. C. Benjamin, 5. X. Yuan , Rev. Mod. Phys. 92, 015003 (2020). [OpenUrl][25] 6. [↵][26]1. Y. Cao et al ., Chem. Rev. 119, 10856 (2019). [OpenUrl][27] 7. [↵][28]1. A. Peruzzo et al ., Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014). [OpenUrl][29][CrossRef][30][PubMed][31] 8. [↵][32]1. A. Kandala et al ., Nature 549, 242 (2017). [OpenUrl][33][CrossRef][34][PubMed][35] Correction (23 October 2020): The Perspective now correctly refers throughout to the group authorship of the related paper. This also entailed a minor revision of the figure text and a corrected entry in the reference list. 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Engagement score
197

Boeing is finally close to getting its 737 Max back into the air again in the United States. But the company still faces challenges in the critical aviation market of China, where its business woes go way beyond the troubled aircraft.


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194

In 2018 at SIHH (now Watches & Wonders), Piaget made watchmaking history with the unveiling of the Altiplano Ultimate Concept— then and now the thinnest mechanical watch in the world ever produced. At the time, the watch remained as its name implies: a concept with an experimental design. Today,


Engagement score
191

Autonomous functions for robots, such as spontaneity, are highly sought after. Many control mechanisms for autonomous robots are inspired by the functions of animals, including humans. Roboticists often design robot behaviors using predefined modules and control methodologies, which makes them task-specific, limiting their flexibility. Researchers offer an alternative machine learning-based method for designing spontaneous behaviors by capitalizing on complex temporal patterns, like neural activities of animal brains. They hope to see their design implemented in robotic platforms to improve their autonomous capabilities.


Engagement score
186

We’ve identified twenty emerging design trends for 2020. Here are the game-changers that will define our experiential landscape for the year to come. #web #business #mobile #app #product #design #ux #ui #designers


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182

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