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The Italian graphic designer, or logo guru, as one might say, Emanuele Abrate, shows what fonts some of the most popular brands chose to represent them by replacing names in logos with logo fonts.


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GraphicMama has come up with a handy video that shares the biggest graphic design trends of 2020. They’ve conducted a deep research to spot the rise in particular trends which have been popular in the graphic design industry. 2020 has been all about innovative typography, 3D realism, metallic textures, geometric designs, and liquid patterns. Expect […]


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A noted graphic designer, he was an expert in typefaces, developing many himself and “fixing” others. His work adorns this newspaper.


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With cases of the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) climbing steeply everywhere from Madrid to Manhattan , overwhelming one hospital after another and pushing the global death toll past 17,000, the sprint to find treatments has dramatically accelerated. Drugs that stop the novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), could save the lives of severely ill patients, protect health care workers and others at high risk of infection, and reduce the time patients spend in hospital beds. The World Health Organization (WHO) last week announced a major study to compare treatment strategies in a streamlined clinical trial design that doctors around the world can join. Other trials are also underway; all told, at least 12 potential COVID-19 treatments are being tested, including drugs already in use for HIV and malaria, experimental compounds that work against an array of viruses in animal experiments, and antibody-rich plasma from people who have recovered from COVID-19. More than one strategy may prove its worth, and effective treatments may work at different stages of infection, says Thomas Gallagher, a coronavirus researcher at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus. “The big challenge may be at the clinical end determining when to use the drugs.” Researchers want to avoid repeating the mistakes of the 2014–16 West African Ebola epidemic, in which willy-nilly experiments proliferated but randomized clinical trials were set up so late that many ended up not recruiting enough patients. “The lesson is you start trials now,” says Arthur Caplan, a bioethicist at New York University's Langone Medical Center. “Make it a part of what you're doing so that you can move rapidly to have the most efficacious interventions come to the front.” To that end, WHO on 20 March announced the launch of SOLIDARITY, an unprecedented, coordinated push to collect robust scientific data rapidly during a pandemic. The study, which could include many thousands of patients in dozens of countries, has emphasized simplicity so that even hospitals overwhelmed by an onslaught of COVID-19 patients can participate. WHO's website will randomize patients to local standard care or one of the four drug regimens, using only ones available at the patient's hospital. Physicians will simply record the day the patient left the hospital or died, the duration of the hospital stay, and whether the patient required oxygen or ventilation. “That's all,” says Ana Maria Henao Restrepo, a medical officer at WHO's Emergencies Programme. The design is not blinded: Patients will know they received a drug candidate, and that could cause a placebo effect, Henao Restrepo concedes. But it is in the interest of speed, she says. “We are doing this in record time.” The agency hopes to start to enroll patients this week. Rather than taking years to develop and test compounds from scratch, WHO and others want to repurpose drugs that are already approved for other diseases and have acceptable safety profiles. They're also looking at experimental drugs that have performed well in animal studies against the other two deadly coronaviruses, which cause SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). And they are focusing on compounds plentiful enough to treat a substantial number of patients. For its study, WHO chose an experimental antiviral called remdesivir; the malaria medication chloroquine (or its chemical cousin hydroxychloroquine); a combination of the HIV drugs lopinavir and ritonavir; and that combination plus interferon-beta, an immune system messenger that can help cripple viruses. The treatments would stop the virus by different mechanisms, but each has drawbacks. Remdesivir, developed by Gilead Sciences to combat Ebola and related viruses, shuts down viral replication by inhibiting a key viral enzyme, the RNA polymerase. It didn't help patients with Ebola in a test during the 2019 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. But in 2017, researchers showed in test tube and animal studies that the drug can inhibit the SARS and MERS viruses. The drug, which is given intravenously, has been used in hundreds of COVID-19 patients in the United States and Europe under what's known as compassionate use, which required Gilead to review patient records; some doctors have reported anecdotal evidence of benefit, but no hard data. Gilead says it is now starting to supply remdesivir under a simpler “expanded use” designation. Five other clinical trials underway in China and the United States are testing it and may have preliminary results soon. Of the drugs in the SOLIDARITY trial, “remdesivir has the best potential,” says Shibo Jiang of Fudan University, who works on coronavirus therapeutics. Like most drugs for acute infections, remdesivir may be much more potent if given early, says Stanley Perlman, a coronavirus researcher at the University of Iowa—and that could be a challenge. “What you really want to do is give a drug like that to people who walk in with mild symptoms,” he says. “And you can't do that because it's an [intravenous] drug, it's expensive, and 85 out of 100 people don't need it” because they won't develop severe disease. ![Figure][1] GRAPHIC: V. ALTOUNIAN/ SCIENCE Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have received intense attention because of positive results from small studies and an endorsement from President Donald Trump, who said, “I feel good about it.” The drugs decrease acidity in endosomes, compartments that cells use to ingest outside material and that some viruses co-opt during infection. But SARS-CoV- 2's main entryway is different: It uses its so-called spike protein to attach to a receptor on the surface of human cells. Studies in cell culture have suggested chloroquine can cripple the virus, but the doses needed are usually high and could cause severe toxicity. “Researchers have tried this drug on virus after virus, and it never works out in humans,” says Susanne Herold, an expert on pulmonary infections at the University of Giessen. Results from COVID-19 patients are murky. Chinese researchers who treated more than 100 patients touted chloroquine's benefits in a letter in BioScience , but they did not publish data. And WHO says “no data has been shared” from more than 20 other COVID-19 studies in China using chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine. French microbiologist Didier Raoult and colleagues published a study of hydroxychloroquine in 20 COVID-19 patients that concluded the drug had reduced viral load in nasal swabs. (It seemed to work even better with the antibiotic azithromycin.) But the trial, reported in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents , was not randomized, and it didn't report clinical outcomes such as deaths. Hydroxychloroquine might actually do more harm than good. It has many side effects and can, in rare cases, harm the heart—and people with heart conditions are at higher risk of severe COVID-19, says David Smith, an infectious disease physician at the University of California, San Diego. “This is a warning signal, but we still need to do the trial,” he says. There have also been reports of chloroquine poisoning in people who self-medicated. Many coronavirus researchers are similarly skeptical of the lopinavir-ritonavir combination. Abbott Laboratories developed the drugs to inhibit the protease of HIV, an enzyme that cleaves a long protein chain during assembly of new viruses. The combination has worked in marmosets infected with the MERS virus, and has also been tested in patients with SARS and MERS, though those results are ambiguous. But the first trial with COVID-19 was not encouraging. When doctors in Wuhan, China, gave 199 patients standard care with or without lopinavir-ritonavir, the outcomes did not differ significantly, they reported in The New England Journal of Medicine on 15 March. The authors say the patients were very ill and treatment may have started too late. The fourth arm of SOLIDARITY combines these two antivirals with interferon-beta, a molecule involved in regulating inflammation that has lessened disease severity in marmosets infected with MERS. But interferon-beta might be risky for patients with severe COVID-19, Herold says. “If it is given late in the disease it could easily lead to worse tissue damage, instead of helping patients,” she cautions. SOLIDARITY is designed to provide a quick, useful verdict, based on the outcomes that are the most relevant for public health, says virologist Christian Drosten of the Charité University Hospital in Berlin. More detailed data could come from an add-on trial in Europe, announced on 23 March by the French biomedical research agency INSERM. To include 3200 patients, it will test the same drugs, including hydroxychloroquine but not chloroquine, and collect additional data such as blood gas levels or lung imaging. Other approved and experimental treatments are in testing against coronavirus or likely soon to be. They include drugs that can reduce inflammation, such as corticosteroids and baricitinib, a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis. Some researchers have high hopes for camostat mesylate, a drug licensed in Japan for pancreatitis, which inhibits a human protein involved with infection. Other antivirals will also get a chance, including the influenza drug favipiravir and additional HIV antiretrovirals. Researchers also plan to try to boost immunity with “convalescent” plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients or monoclonal antibodies directed at SARS-CoV-2. Perlman says the smartest way to test the drugs is in people in early stages of disease who doctors think are most likely to get much worse. How would you determine that? “That is the key question,” he says. Researchers might find a biomarker in blood that helps them predict disease course. Crucially, doctors and researchers around the world are tackling the problem with urgency, Henao Restrepo says. “This is a crisis like no other and we will have to work together,” she says. “That is the only way perhaps we are going to find a solution.” Correction (30 March 2020): Ana Maria Henao Restrepo's role at WHO has been updated. [1]: pending:yes


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Graphic design trends 2020 are super diverse and impressive! In 2020, we will see amazing design work and mesmerizing color combinations. Don't miss out!


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Cytokines have far-reaching effects on the behavior of immune cells. Given their powerful roles, there has been a long history of trying to harness cytokines as therapeutic drugs for cancer and other diseases. However, there are several problems that severely limit the therapeutic use of cytokines, including their pleiotropic actions and systemic toxicity. Overcoming these issues to create the next generation of cytokine-based therapies will require sophisticated control over their spatial-temporal function. New approaches in protein and cell engineering are emerging that allow distinct and multiple levels at which to program cytokine regulation—from engineering individual cytokines, to cytokine-receptor pairs, and ultimately, more complex cytokine-sensing, -secreting, and -consuming cell circuits. These technologies may confer the ability to precisely sculpt the local cytokine environment, and by doing so, improve the potency of cytokine drugs and deepen our understanding of the language of cytokine communication. The biological function of cytokines is broad, encompassing immune cell proliferation, death, activation, and inhibition. The effects of these secreted signaling molecules depends on their local concentration, which is driven by the rates of cytokine production, diffusion, and consumption. Cytokine-mediated cell-cell communication can be autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine. Together, these core features of cytokine communication are thought to shape the ecosystem of specific tissues or tumors. Perhaps most notable is how this set of secreted factors can achieve such diverse yet highly spatially coordinated physiological outcomes within the complex environment of the body. Interleukins and interferons are cytokines that have clinical relevance in cancer. Direct infusion of cytokines into a tissue can have potent therapeutic effects—killing transformed cells in a tumor or stimulating the expansion and cytotoxic activities of host or adoptively transferred immune cells. So far, two cytokine drugs [interferon-α (IFN-α) and interleukin-2 (IL-2)] have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, melanoma, and other cancers. Nonetheless, there are fundamental problems that severely limit the therapeutic use of natural cytokines: short circulation half-life, off-target effects, and inherent pleiotropic functions. Clinically, repeated systemic administration of IL-2 at high doses is typically needed to achieve therapeutic response as a result of its short circulation half-life (the serum half-life of IL-2 is ∼90 min). Most seriously, cytokines act as a double-edged sword—they target many cell types. Thus, for example, high dosing regimens of IL-2 elicit severe systemic toxicity because the cytokine accumulates not only in the disease tissue, but also in healthy bystander organs, where IL-2 induces severe adverse effects including vascular leak syndrome and pulmonary edema ([ 1 ][1]). IL-2 causes many changes in immune cells, some that may be desired and some that are therapeutically detrimental. IL-2 acts on multiple immune cells—it drives proliferation of effector T cells, but also stimulates T regulatory cells (Treg) that cause suppressive outcomes. Treg stimulation can promote tumor growth by serving as an IL-2 cytokine sink to deplete the growth factor necessary for effector T cell–mediated antitumor activity, and by directly disarming effector T cells. Much of the existing efforts to engineer improved cytokines have focused on IL-2 because of its long history as a cancer therapeutic target. A more-conventional chemical strategy is to attach IL-2 to moieties such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) to extend its serum half-life. PEGylating IL-2 creates an IL-2 prodrug that mitigates rapid systemic activation upon administration by hindering receptor binding. Once the PEG is slowly released from the prodrug, the active free IL-2 becomes bioavailable over time ([ 2 ][2]). This modified IL-2 showed significantly longer serum half-life and was well tolerated in recent phase 1 trials in patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT02983045). Similarly, a PEGylated form of IFN-α showed longer half-life, and was approved by the FDA for the treatment of melanoma. Nonetheless, current evidence suggests that these approaches do not sufficiently address the major challenges of systemic toxicity and pleiotropic action. Creating the next generation of cytokine-based therapies that address pleiotropic toxicity will require far greater control over cytokine function. Advances in protein and cell engineering are emerging that provide multiple new levels at which to program the time and space of cytokine-driven immune responses (see the figure). Protein engineering and screening have allowed investigators to more rationally engineer synthetic cytokines with selective bias toward a desired function. Pioneering studies using phage display screens created a human growth hormone (hGH) mutant that bound ∼400 fold more tightly to its receptor than the wild-type form ([ 3 ][3]). Following this example, most cytokine engineering strategies use a combination of directed mutagenesis and library-based screens. For instance, an IL-2 mutant (BAY 50-4798) with reduced affinity for IL-2 receptor-β (IL-2Rβ) showed preferential activation for T cells over natural killer (NK) cells (which can cause toxicity) 3000-fold higher than the wild-type IL-2 ([ 4 ][4]). Even though this mutant was shown to be less toxic when tested in preclinical models, phase 1 trials in patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cancer failed to show significant benefit or reduction in side effects over IL-2 ([ 5 ][5]), likely because multiple IL-2–responsive populations can contribute to toxicity. In a different approach, a superagonist form of IL-2, called “Super2,” was engineered to have increased binding affinity for IL-2Rβ, rationalizing that it would preferentially trigger naïve T cells that are otherwise insensitive to IL-2 owing to their low expression of IL-2Rα (which stabilizes IL-2 interaction with IL-2Rβ). Indeed, Super2 showed superior expansion of cytotoxic T cells relative to regulatory T cells than did IL-2 and also reduced pulmonary toxicity in preclinical tumor models ([ 6 ][6]). Building on this work, an entirely new cytokine termed “neo-2/15” was designed in silico that signals through the shared chains of IL-2 and IL-15 receptors (the heterodimer of IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγc) but has no binding sites for their respective private chains (IL-2Rα and IL-15Rα). Bypassing the private receptors allows neo-2/15 to preferentially signal to antitumor lymphocytes. In preclinical tumor models, neo-2/15 shows superior therapeutic activity to IL-2 and reduced toxicity ([ 7 ][7]). Recent efforts in cytokine engineering have also resulted in a “decoy-resistant” IL-18 (DR-18), which maintains native IL-18 signaling but is impervious to inhibition by IL-18 binding peptide (IL-18BP), an endogenous secreted antagonist for wild-type IL-18 ([ 8 ][8]). Unlike IL-18, DR-18 showed effective antitumor effects in mice resistant to immune-checkpoint therapies. Clinical examples of designer cytokines include Pitrakinra, an engineered IL-4 variant that acts as an antagonist. In completed phase 2 trials, Pitrakinra showed some benefits for treating IL–4-associated asthma, with fewer adverse events ([ 9 ][9]). A more radical emerging approach to limiting detrimental cytokine action is to engineer orthogonal cytokine-receptor pairs. This approach entails changing both the cytokine molecule and the way a target cell recognizes the engineered cytokine—an approach that fits well with engineered immune cell therapies [such as adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells], which already involves a commitment to engineering a target effector immune cell. For example, to precisely target IL-2 functions to specific target T cells, an orthogonal IL-2/IL-2R pair (ortho2 and ortho2R, respectively) was developed ([ 10 ][10]). Ortho2 is a mutant IL-2 that can no longer bind to the native IL-2R; similarly, ortho2R is a mutant IL-2R that does not recognize the native IL-2. The ortho2/2R pair are engineered to only interact with each other. Thus, ortho2 stimulates only the complementary T cells that have been engineered to express ortho2R. Although engineering perfect orthogonal pairs with wild-type like potency remains a challenge, this pioneering work shows the power of the approach. In mouse models, ortho2 cytokine-receptor pairs show a high degree of specificity and orthogonality in vivo, suggesting that ortho2 may be a powerful tool to precisely control the proliferation of engineered cells while remaining inert to the endogenous immune system. This concept can be broadly applied to other cytokines and could be used to control CAR T cells or any other engineered therapeutic cell. Moving beyond cytokines that already exist in nature, non-natural cytokines, or “synthekines,” have also been described ([ 11 ][11]). These synthekines do not bind to natural cytokine receptor pairings, but instead assemble non-natural receptor heterodimers that lead to previously undescribed responses. Together, these important advances demonstrate the possibility of going beyond the proteins that our genomes naturally encode and open exciting therapeutic opportunities. An even higher level of emerging engineering involves the creation of new multicellular cytokine systems and circuits. The highly localized action of cytokines originates from the ability of specific cells to read local signals that control both the production and consumption of cytokines—in essence, the immune system sculpts spatial gradients and niches using source and sink cells (in addition to effector cells that read the gradients) ([ 12 ][12]). With our mechanistic understanding of cellular biology and cell-cell communication, it may now be possible to rationally sculpt cytokine gradients, using cells that are synthetically engineered to act as sources and sinks. Engineering such gradients will likely require dynamic and discrete combinations of agonists and antagonists in the forms of cytokines, inhibitors, and cytokine receptors. ![Figure][13] Engineering cytokine communication Emerging protein- and cell-engineering technologies may provide multiple levels at which to program cytokine-driven immune responses. These tools may lead to powerful therapeutics and improve understanding of cytokine-based communication. GRAPHIC: V. ALTOUNIAN/ SCIENCE An early approach to engineering “source cells” has been to design CAR T cells to express proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-12), either constitutively or under a CAR-controlled promoter ([ 13 ][14]). Engineering of cytokine consuming “sink” cells can also be a complementary powerful tool for sculpting cytokine milieus. A recent example of this nascent concept is engineered T cells constitutively expressing a nonsignaling membrane-bound IL-6R to effectively deplete IL-6 and thus reduce IL-6–mediated toxicity in mice ([ 14 ][15]). More controlled approaches are emerging in which modular sensing receptors, such as synNotch receptors ([ 15 ][16]), can be used to induce cytokine secretion or consumption in response to local disease or tissue antigen signals, yielding the potential of highly localized and programmable sink or source cells. Such engineered cellular delivery systems may offer one of the best ways to autonomously target and modulate local disease environments (including metastases) to drive antitumor responses and to remodel immunosuppressive responses, especially when combined with engineered autocrine or paracrine signaling that can locally amplify activity through positive feedback. Conversely, similar approaches could be used to create locally suppressed microenvironments in the case of autoimmunity. These concepts are still at an early stage, and much experimental and theoretical validation are needed before they can reach the clinic. As a therapy, it is also important to critically evaluate the timing of intervention during disease progression. Ultimately, these multicellular cytokine control circuits may allow modulation of the expansion and death of engineered and host cells, and tuning the amplitude and duration of cytokines in a precisely targeted local environment. The future for engineered cytokines and cellular circuits is promising given that they could have many advantages compared to current cytokine therapies, including higher specificity, local and tissue-specific actions, and reduced off-target effects. It is expected that these strategies will be broadly impactful in treating other diseases involving inflammatory imbalances, such as autoimmunity, fibrosis, and tissue or wound regeneration. As more attempts are made to sculpt local cytokine microenvironments, deeper understanding of the language and grammar of cytokine-based communication will be gained. 1. [↵][17]1. J. A. Klapper et al ., Cancer 113, 293 (2008). [OpenUrl][18][CrossRef][19][PubMed][20] 2. [↵][21]1. D. H. Charych et al ., Clin. Cancer Res. 22, 680 (2016). [OpenUrl][22][Abstract/FREE Full Text][23] 3. [↵][24]1. H. B. Lowman, 2. J. A. Wells , J. Mol. Biol. 234, 564 (1993). [OpenUrl][25][CrossRef][26][PubMed][27][Web of Science][28] 4. [↵][29]1. A. B. Shanafelt et al ., Nat. Biotechnol. 18, 1197 (2000). [OpenUrl][30][CrossRef][31][PubMed][32][Web of Science][33] 5. [↵][34]1. K. Margolin et al ., Clin. Cancer Res. 13, 3312 (2007). [OpenUrl][35][Abstract/FREE Full Text][36] 6. [↵][37]1. A. M. Levin et al ., Nature 484, 529 (2012). [OpenUrl][38][CrossRef][39][PubMed][40][Web of Science][41] 7. [↵][42]1. D.-A. DSilva et al ., Nature 565, 186 (2019). [OpenUrl][43][CrossRef][44][PubMed][45] 8. [↵][46]1. T. Zhou et al ., Nature 583, 609 (2020). [OpenUrl][47] 9. [↵][48]1. S. Wenzel, 2. D. Wilbraham, 3. R. Fuller, 4. E. B. Getz, 5. M. Longphre , Lancet 370, 1422 (2007). [OpenUrl][49][CrossRef][50][PubMed][51][Web of Science][52] 10. [↵][53]1. J. T. Sockolosky et al ., Science 359, 1037 (2018). [OpenUrl][54][Abstract/FREE Full Text][55] 11. [↵][56]1. I. Moraga et al ., eLife 6, e22882 (2017). [OpenUrl][57][CrossRef][58][PubMed][59] 12. [↵][60]1. A. Oyler-Yaniv et al ., Immunity 46, 609 (2017). [OpenUrl][61][CrossRef][62] 13. [↵][63]1. O. O. Yeku, 2. T. J. Purdon, 3. M. Koneru, 4. D. Spriggs, 5. R. J. Brentjens , Sci. Rep. 7, 10541 (2017). [OpenUrl][64][CrossRef][65] 14. [↵][66]1. A. H. J. Tan, 2. N. Vinanica, 3. D. Campana , Blood Adv. 4, 1419 (2020). [OpenUrl][67] 15. [↵][68]1. K. T. Roybal et al ., Cell 167, 419 (2016). [OpenUrl][69][CrossRef][70][PubMed][71] Acknowledgments: The authors are supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (W.A.L.), the NIH (R01CA196277, P50GM081879, UC4DK116264, U54CA244438), and the Cancer Research Institute (A.W.L.). Thanks to members of the Lim lab and H. El-Samad. W.A.L is adviser to Allogene, a shareholder of Gilead, and has applied for patents on cytokine delivery circuits. A.W.L. is an employee of Lyell. [1]: #ref-1 [2]: #ref-2 [3]: #ref-3 [4]: #ref-4 [5]: #ref-5 [6]: #ref-6 [7]: #ref-7 [8]: #ref-8 [9]: #ref-9 [10]: #ref-10 [11]: #ref-11 [12]: #ref-12 [13]: pending:yes [14]: #ref-13 [15]: #ref-14 [16]: #ref-15 [17]: #xref-ref-1-1 "View reference 1 in text" [18]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DCancer%26rft.stitle%253DCancer%26rft.aulast%253DKlapper%26rft.auinit1%253DJ.%2BA.%26rft.volume%253D113%26rft.issue%253D2%26rft.spage%253D293%26rft.epage%253D301%26rft.atitle%253DHigh-dose%2Binterleukin-2%2Bfor%2Bthe%2Btreatment%2Bof%2Bmetastatic%2Brenal%2Bcell%2Bcarcinoma%2B%253A%2Ba%2Bretrospective%2Banalysis%2Bof%2Bresponse%2Band%2Bsurvival%2Bin%2Bpatients%2Btreated%2Bin%2Bthe%2Bsurgery%2Bbranch%2Bat%2Bthe%2BNational%2BCancer%2BInstitute%2Bbetween%2B1986%2Band%2B2006.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1002%252Fcncr.23552%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F18457330%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [19]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1002/cncr.23552&link_type=DOI [20]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=18457330&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F370%2F6520%2F1034.atom [21]: #xref-ref-2-1 "View 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> Science's COVID-19 reporting is supported by the Pulitzer Center and the Heising-Simons Foundation October was a good month for Gilead Sciences, the giant U.S. manufacturer of antivirals. On 8 October, the company inked an agreement to supply the European Union with its drug remdesivir as a treatment for COVID-19—a deal potentially worth more than $1 billion. Two weeks later, on 22 October, remdesivir became the first COVID-19 drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The decisions mean Gilead can cash in big in two major markets, both with soaring COVID-19 cases. But they baffled scientists who have closely watched the clinical trials of remdesivir unfold over the past 6 months—and who have many questions about its worth. At best, one large, well-designed study found that remdesivir, which must be infused intravenously, modestly reduced the time to recover from COVID-19 in hospitalized patients with severe illness. A few smaller studies found no impact on the disease whatsoever, and none has found that the antiviral reduces patients' level of SARS-CoV-2, the causative virus. Then, on 15 October, the fourth and largest study delivered what some believed was a coup de grâce: The World Health Organization's (WHO's) giant Solidarity trial showed that remdesivir does not reduce mortality or the time COVID-19 patients take to recover. Science has learned that both FDA's decision and the EU deal came about under unusual circumstances that gave the company important advantages. FDA never consulted a group of outside experts that it has at the ready to weigh in on complicated antiviral drug issues. FDA can tap that group, the Antimicrobial Drugs Advisory Committee (AMDAC), to review all available data on experimental treatments and then make recommendations about drug approvals—yet it has not convened once during the pandemic. The EU, meanwhile, agreed to the remdesivir purchase price exactly 1 week before the disappointing Solidarity trial results came out. It was unaware of those results, but Gilead knew the trial was a bust; it had begun to review the data on 23 September. “This is a very, very bad look for the FDA, and the dealings between Gilead and EU make it another layer of badness,” says Eric Topol, a cardiologist at the Scripps Research Translational Institute. FDA has no obligation to convene the panel for its decisions, stresses AMDAC member David Hardy, an HIV/AIDS scientist of the University of California, Los Angeles. Yet Hardy is “amazed” the agency didn't consult it in this case. “This sets the standard for the first COVID-19 antiviral,” he says. “That really is something that's very, very important.” FDA did not respond to Science 's request to discuss why it opted against convening the committee, noting only that it is “at the discretion” of division directors. But FDA's inaction stands in sharp contrast to its handling of COVID-19 vaccines; it convened an advisory group to discuss potential dilemmas the very day of the remdesivir approval. Gilead, for its part, acknowledges it had seen an early draft of the Solidarity results before signing the EU deal. But Gilead has aggressively challenged the validity of the data, in part because the study was done in countries with widely varying health care standards. That criticism has angered Solidarity investigators. Half the patients who received remdesivir were treated in Europe and Canada, WHO notes, and the others were not necessarily in countries with substandard health care. “It's appalling to see how Gilead tries to badmouth the Solidarity trial,” says Marie-Paule Kieny, director of research at the French medical research agency INSERM and a former WHO officer. On 10 January, 2 days after China revealed SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19, researchers published an encouraging study in Nature Communications about remdesivir, originally developed to fight the Ebola and hepatitis C viruses. In both test tube and mouse studies, it had powerful inhibitory effects on a SARS-CoV-2 relative that causes Middle East respiratory syndrome. Two weeks later, doctors treated the first confirmed U.S. case with the drug and reported the 35-year-old man improved rapidly. An interim analysis from a large-scale clinical trial by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced on 29 April, showed the drug reduced the median recovery time of severely ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients from 15 days to 11 days. A second study, in China, appeared the same day and found no statistically significant benefit, however. Two days later, FDA granted an emergency use authorization (EUA) that allowed the drug to be given for severe COVID-19, a move President Donald Trump praised in an Oval Office press event with Daniel O'Day, CEO of Gilead. But the mixed messages about the drug continued: In August, a Gilead-sponsored study showed patients with moderate pneumonia treated for 5 days with remdesivir improved more quickly than those who received standard care, but oddly, those treated for 10 days did not. Nevertheless, shortly afterward, FDA expanded remdesivir's EUA to include all hospitalized COVID-19 patients. To Topol, FDA's move resembled heavily criticized EUAs issued earlier for the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine—which the agency later rescinded—and antibody-rich “convalescent” plasma. In an open letter to FDA Commissioner Stephen Hahn, he wrote: “These repeated breaches demonstrate your willingness to ignore the lack of scientific evidence, and to be complicit with the Trump Administration's politicization of America's healthcare institutions.” Many scientists expected WHO's Solidarity trial—which had 2750 patients on remdesivir, about three times as many as all other published trials put together—to resolve the drug's worth. Conducted in 30 countries, Solidarity compared remdesivir and three other repurposed drugs with each other and the standard of care. (Unlike the NIH and Chinese trials, it did not use a placebo.) None of the drugs lowered mortality among hospitalized patients, it found, and the investigators also noted that remdesivir did not affect “the duration of hospitalization” or whether COVID-19 patients required ventilators. Solidarity described the results to FDA representatives on 10 October and in a preprint posted 5 days later. But 1 week after that, FDA approved the drug, having reviewed data only from the NIH study and two Gilead-sponsored trials. It had ignored the Solidarity data as well as the findings in China. That infuriated the Solidarity team. “The mantra I've always heard as a joke about the FDA is that they say ‘In God we trust, everyone else has to provide data,’” Kieny says. “So look at all the data.” Gilead Chief Medical Officer Merdad Parsey argued in an open letter posted the day of FDA's remdesivir approval that Solidarity “does not negate other study results—particularly from a trial designed with the strictest of scientific standards,” like NIH's study. The company further noted that the Solidarity results have not been peer reviewed and told Science WHO had yet to provide Gilead “the underlying data sets or statistical analysis plan” for the trial. WHO says Gilead knew the analysis plan before joining the trial and will receive the full data set once the study is complete, and that FDA traditionally reviews all available data, including unpublished findings. Clifford Lane of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, who helped run the NIH study, says its main difference with Solidarity is “the degree of granularity” of the analyses of subgroups that may have benefited. “I think the Solidarity data are fine,” Lane says. “It's a very large study and it has a very robust endpoint.” Richard Peto, a University of Oxford statistician and epidemiologist who helped design Solidarity and analyze the data, stresses that the WHO trial cannot prove remdesivir has no benefit for COVID-19. “Gilead and the FDA have sort of maneuvered us into a position where we're being asked to try and prove remdesivir does nothing rather than asking the usual way round, which is, ‘Can the manufacturers prove it does something?’” It's still possible that remdesivir might help people at early stages of disease, says Martin Landray of Oxford, who is co-leading the world's largest study of various COVID-19 treatments. But it “definitely doesn't work in the sickest patients where the biggest gains would be.” Treating patients earlier comes at a price. “You won't save many lives, and you'll have to treat a lot of patients,” he says. “And it'll cost you a fortune.” ![Figure][1] GRAPHIC: C. BICKEL/ SCIENCE At the same time, the trials have not ruled out the possibility of harmful side effects. In late August, WHO noted a disproportionately high number of reports of liver and kidney problems in patients on remdesivir. And the European Medicines Agency (EMA) said last month that its safety committee had begun to assess reports of acute kidney injuries in some patients taking the drug. To many scientists, such complexities underscore that FDA should have consulted AMDAC, its panel of outside experts, for a vigorous debate. It could have “elevated the discussion,” says AMDAC Chair Lindsey Baden, an infectious disease specialist at Brigham and Women's Hospital. “Hydroxychloroquine, convalescent plasma, remdesivir—these are complicated decisions given the imperfect nature of the data. … The urgency of the clinical use gives all the more reasons to have an open discussion,” says Baden, whose group last met in October 2019. EMA, Europe's FDA counterpart, in July gave “conditional approval” to remdesivir—similar to an EUA—but it has yet to give its full blessing. The European Union nevertheless has negotiated a “joint procurement agreement” with Gilead, signed on 8 October, that secures as many as 500,000 treatment courses for $1.2 billion. A spokesperson for the European Commission confirms to Science it was not informed of the drug's failure in the Solidarity trial until the next day: “There was no discussion with WHO about the ongoing study prior to signing the contract.” When Science asked Gilead why it didn't disclose the Solidarity data during the negotiations, the company said the draft manuscript it received from WHO in late September was “heavily redacted.” WHO says the only information blacked out was results relating to the other drugs used in the trial because of confidentiality agreements. Although the agreement with Gilead locks EU members into a price of about $2400 for a full course of remdesivir, it does not obligate any countries to purchase the drug, the Commission spokesperson says. But Yannis Natsis of the nonprofit European Public Health Alliance says that given the Solidarity results, the European Union “should at least renegotiate the volume of the doses and the price.” To Kieny, this investment in a drug that may help just a few patients is an “enormous” waste. “You can always say, ‘OK, now, if I disaggregate the population and if I take only those who have a blue eye and a wooden leg, maybe this is very effective,’” she says. On 28 October, Gilead told investors that remdesivir has brought in $873 million so far this year. “We're proud to be at the front end of this with a very potent antiviral,” O'Day said. [1]: pending:yes


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Venngage has come up with a handy infographic that shares the top graphic design trends that will dominate 2021. 2020 has been a rough year with not too many brands taking design risks. The team at Venngage believes that designers in 2021 will focus on invoking a sense of calm, understanding, and positivity in an […]


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Fully online Bachelor's Degree in Graphic Design. Earn your BFA in Graphic Design at Sessions College - accredited, accessible, affordable creative education.


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Ready to get ahead of all the biggest graphic design trends this year? We’ve filling you in on all of the hottest design trends for 2021!


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Quantum computers potentially have computational power greater than that of their classical counterparts. The recent demonstration of “quantum supremacy” on Google's 53-qubit Sycamore quantum processor ([ 1 ][1]) has reinforced this idea, but it remains unknown whether the next generation of quantum computers will be able to solve classically intractable problems of practical interest. On page 1084 of this issue, Google AI Quantum and Collaborators ([ 2 ][2]) take steps toward answering this question with an experimental implementation of Hartree-Fock calculations of molecular electronic energies on a superconducting processor. Although the calculations performed are also efficient to run on classical computers, the experiment demonstrates many of the key building blocks for quantum chemistry simulation and paves the way toward achieving quantum advantage for problems of chemical interest. Using controllable quantum systems to simulate quantum mechanical problems in chemistry and physics was the brainchild of Richard Feynman, who remarked in the 1980s that “If you want to make a simulation of nature, you'd better make it quantum mechanical, and by golly it's a wonderful problem, because it doesn't look so easy” ([ 3 ][3]). Since then, there has been substantial theoretical and experimental progress toward this goal. In particular, the rapid recent development of superconducting qubits, such as Google's Sycamore quantum processor, has enabled quantum supremacy, which samples from the outputs of random quantum circuits more efficiently than appears possible with even the largest classical supercomputers ([ 1 ][1]). ![Figure][4] A variational quantum eigensolver A parameterized quantum circuit, with properly prepared initial states and with the aid of a classical co-processer, approximates the wave function of a chemical compound. The circuit corresponds to the one used for six-qubit Hartree-Fock calculation. GRAPHIC: JOSHUA BIRD/ SCIENCE The authors investigate the performance of this same processor to determine the electronic structure of molecular systems. Such an accomplishment would have academic as well as commercial value, as it could enable the design of improved catalysts or new medicines. Since the first quantum algorithm for quantum computational chemistry was proposed in 2005 ([ 4 ][5]), there have been numerous developments to reduce its computational cost ([ 5 ][6], [ 6 ][7]). One of the most influential developments is that of the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE), which reduces the burden on the quantum processor by leveraging a classical coprocessor ([ 7 ][8]) (see the figure). Prior proof-of-principle VQE experiments have realized electronic structure calculations with up to six qubits ([ 8 ][9]). It is still an open question as to whether the VQE can solve classically intractable instances of the electronic structure problem, which may require on the order of 100 qubits. As the problem size increases, so too does the quantum circuit depth (the number of layers of gates; five in the figure) required to realize the quantum algorithm. Even if the quality of the qubits is maintained while the processor is scaled up, larger processors with deeper circuits will lead to an increased error rate for the calculation. Assessing whether this build-up of errors is fatal for the VQE is one of the most pressing open questions in the field of quantum computing. The authors take steps to address these open questions through an experimental VQE implementation using 6 to 12 qubits. The experiment implements the Hartree-Fock method for calculating the binding energy of hydrogen chains and the isomerization of diazene. The Hartree-Fock method provides approximate solutions to the electronic structure problem and is a classically tractable calculation. It is typically used as an initial step in quantum computational approaches to solving the electronic structure problem. Nonetheless, this VQE experiment demonstrates many of the key components for large-scale VQE implementations, including electronic state preparation, Hamiltonian measurement for any one- and two-particle reduced-density matrix elements, two error mitigation techniques, and outer-loop classical optimization. Together, these features lead to the successful extension of prior investigations into quantum computational chemistry. The techniques demonstrated in this work will likely form the foundation of future VQE experiments targeting classically intractable systems. Perhaps the most important conclusions from the work of the authors are the necessity of tailoring algorithms to the quantum processor and the importance of error mitigation techniques. Because near-term quantum devices typically have restricted realizable gates, the ability to compile the circuit for a given architecture is crucial for simulation efficiency and accuracy. The methods showcased by the authors for realizing electronic states with nearest-neighbor gates shed light on how to implement more complicated calculations with restricted hardware topologies. Even with the compilation methods discussed above, the presence of noise in these calculations is still a pressing issue. The authors show how to obtain accurate results despite this noise through the use of error mitigation strategies. The techniques used in this work are specialized for quantum simulations, exploiting particle conservation through local density matrix information and the N -representability conditions of fermionic systems. For the 12-qubit calculation with 72 two-qubit gates, the combined error mitigation techniques effectively improve the raw-state fidelity to >99%, which represents an increase of about two orders of magnitude. Whether noisy intermediate-scale quantum computers will be able to surpass classical supercomputers in solving chemistry problems has become one of the most exciting questions in quantum computing. Preliminary calculations on small- and intermediate-sized systems have verified the feasibility of the most promising quantum algorithms. However, further work is needed to enable similar calculations to be performed for system sizes that are greater by one to two orders of magnitude. Experimentally, quantum devices need to be scaled up to hundreds or even thousands of qubits. The characterization of errors should be improved alongside a reduction in error rates. Theoretically, we seek more efficient algorithms and more effective error mitigation techniques, especially ones tailored for specific problems and quantum devices. 1. [↵][10]1. F. Arute et al ., Nature 574, 505 (2019). [OpenUrl][11][CrossRef][12][PubMed][13] 2. [↵][14]1. Google AI Quantum and Collaborators et al ., Science 369, 1084 (2020). [OpenUrl][15][Abstract/FREE Full Text][16] 3. [↵][17]1. R. P. Feynman , Int. J. Theor. Phys. 21, 467 (1982). [OpenUrl][18][CrossRef][19][Web of Science][20] 4. [↵][21]1. A. Aspuru-Guzik et al ., Science 309, 1704 (2005). [OpenUrl][22][Abstract/FREE Full Text][23] 5. [↵][24]1. S. McArdle, 2. S. Endo, 3. A. Aspuru-Guzik, 4. S. C. Benjamin, 5. X. Yuan , Rev. Mod. Phys. 92, 015003 (2020). [OpenUrl][25] 6. [↵][26]1. Y. Cao et al ., Chem. Rev. 119, 10856 (2019). [OpenUrl][27] 7. [↵][28]1. A. Peruzzo et al ., Nat. Commun. 5, 4213 (2014). [OpenUrl][29][CrossRef][30][PubMed][31] 8. [↵][32]1. A. Kandala et al ., Nature 549, 242 (2017). [OpenUrl][33][CrossRef][34][PubMed][35] Correction (23 October 2020): The Perspective now correctly refers throughout to the group authorship of the related paper. This also entailed a minor revision of the figure text and a corrected entry in the reference list. 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Engagement score
197

NOV 7, 2020 - After about one week of experimenting with designs and edits during breaks in his busy schedule, Tre Sterling had completed his favorite work. Although Sterling, a redshirt junior defensive back on the Oklahoma State football team, said he typically needs one or two days to assemble a graphic, this multilayered piece was an exception. It features cutouts of himself and fellow safeties Kolby Harvell-Peel and Tanner McCalister suited up in their uniforms, appearing in black-and-white photographs with a few bright splashes of orange. Bold shapes and lettering accent the pictures, and in the bottom half of the graphic, a subtle paisley print and a close-up image of a football field blend in as details a viewer might not notice on


Engagement score
150

Our today is limited with so many rules, especially due to the recent Coronavirus lockdown we have been forced to experience. The soul is…


Engagement score
142
2020-11-13 19:46:48 UTC

Happy New Year! To kick off 2020, We are going to share 16 Graphic Design Trend predictions. Please note that being aware of tends is crucial; however, it should not limit your creative ideas. Feel free to experiment, mix and match styles or come up with something different that works for you.


Engagement score
120

Do you consider yourself a 'graphic designer' or 'visual designer'? Many people will be surprised by that question. But the inescapable fact is that people who call themselves visual designers earn significantly...


Engagement score
71

Design reflects the world around us. Visual trends are almost always linked to the economic and political changes taking place all around the globe. It affects more areas than we can imagine, from fashion to pop culture, music, graphic design, ...


Engagement score
65

The use of cobalt in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) traces back to the well-known LiCoO2 (LCO) cathode, which offers high conductivity and stable structural stability throughout charge cycling. Compared to the other transition metals, cobalt is less abundant and more expensive and also presents political and ethical issues because of the way it is mined in Africa ([ 1 ][1]). Cheaper cathodes have been developed that substitute some of the cobalt with nickel and manganese, and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) and LiNi1- x-y Co x Mn y O2 (NMC, where x and y <1) are used in the majority of the LIBs in electric vehicles. Nonetheless, in NCA and NMC, cobalt enables high-rate performance and to some extent, enhances cycle stability. We outline research efforts that could further decrease or even eliminate cobalt content in LIBs to lower their cost while maintaining high performance. Efforts to replace cobalt have to start with an understanding of what makes cobalt so crucial within the NMC and NCA compositions. Originally, cobalt and manganese were introduced into LiNiO2 (LNO) to stabilize the material itself. Although LNO has a high theoretical energy density, it also has very poor cycling stability and presents potential safety hazards because of lattice instability. For these reasons, cobalt was added as a stabilizer. In comparison to LCO, it is difficult to synthesize pure layered LNO, which facilitates Li+ ion transport, and more often the undesired rock salt structure forms. Also, nickel is inherently unstable by itself in the transition-metal layer of the oxide as it has a relatively strong magnetic moment. Three triangularly placed Ni2+ cations will always have two opposing magnetic moments, creating “magnetic frustration” ([ 2 ][2]). Because Li+ ions do not have a magnetic moment, they preferentially exchange with some of the nickel ions. The loss of a spin at one site relieves magnetic frustration (see the figure). The strong interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling between nickel in the transition-metal layer and the migrated nickel in the lithium layer creates a super-exchange interaction that further stabilizes the Li+ ion ([ 2 ][2]). Overall, this lithium-nickel mixing deteriorates performance because the lithium-deficient LiO2 interslab layer decreases in thickness. This thinner layer severely hinders transport of lithium ions and ultimately results in very rapid degradation of the LNO composition ([ 3 ][3]). ![Figure][4] Instability of nickel Nickel (Ni) as a replacement for cobalt (Co) in lithium (Li) ion battery cathodes suffers from magnetic frustration. Discharging mixes Li ions into the Ni layer, versus just storing them between the oxide layers. GRAPHIC: N. CARY/ SCIENCE When cobalt is introduced into LNO, both during synthesis and delithiation, the intermixing of lithium for nickel is deterred statistically because of the lower nickel content. More importantly, it alleviates magnetic frustration ([ 4 ][5]) because the Co3+ cation does not have a magnetic moment and serves as a buffer atom in the transition-metal layer (see the figure). Because added cobalt in LNO easily prevents nickel-lithium mixing and subsequent phase transitions, the desired layered structure forms ([ 5 ][6]). Directly decreasing cobalt content can be effective in achieving acceptable performance but only to some minimum cobalt fraction. For example, in nickel-rich NMC compositions, thermal stability, which is crucial for avoiding catastrophic failures, as well as cycle stability drastically dropped in comparison to equal nickel-cobalt fractions. The NMC systems with progressively higher nickel content from NMC 111, 532, 622, and 811 (where 111 represent 1 part nickel, 1 part manganese, and 1 part cobalt mass composition, respectively) follow a steady trend in decreasing cycle stability and safety ([ 6 ][7]). By contrast, partial substitution of cobalt with other elements such as titanium has been shown to produce reasonable performance ([ 7 ][8]). Although other metals can limit lithium-nickel mixing, typically poor kinetics and lower capacities result. Binary composition with ultralow O2 gas, such as LiNi0.94Co0.06O2, has exhibited severe surface reconstruction when compared to NMC 811 ([ 8 ][9]) that pulverizes the particles after prolonged cycling. Other systems, such as the lithium- and manganese-rich materials, consist of a mix of 0.5 Li2MnO3 and 0.5 NMC. This layered-layered structure offers increased capacity at the cost of severe phase transitions. The defects introduced limit the capacity of cathode and the voltage it can produce, an effect called voltage fade. Moving toward completely cobalt-free systems has led researchers to pursue disordered rock-salt materials in hopes of harnessing their increased capacity through the use of anionic redox couples, such as O2− ([ 9 ][10]). However, anionic redox systems have limited cyclability because of the formation of O2 gas. Recent work has yielded some pure anionic redox systems where the oxidation state of oxygen is maintained below the superoxide charge of −0.5 ([ 10 ][11]). In the original LiNiO2 system, the role of cobalt may not have been as critical to performance as initially presumed. Often, its importance is only apparent when compounded by the effects of another element. Some combinations of noncobalt transition metals, such as aluminum, manganese, and magnesium, can outperform the cobalt-containing equivalent, although the levels of performance are still lower than the commercially viable ratios ([ 11 ][12]). Even cobalt-free LiNiO2 showed surprisingly good cycling stability when made under synthesis conditions that carefully controlled temperature, sintering time, and O2 gas ([ 12 ][13]). A mostly layered Li0.98Ni1.02O2 structure formed without the need for other transition-metal additives. This surprising result reopens the question of the optimal cathode composition and its implications for the effect of magnetic frustration of this system. Simply tuning the composition of cobalt-free systems will likely require the substitution of cobalt with another third transition metal. A brief performance comparison between the various commonly studied cathode materials is given in table S1 in the supplementary materials. Identifying optimal composition and synthesis conditions of new cathodes will likely require rigorous and extensive factorial experimental design that must incorporate compositions with elemental fractions decreased to doping levels (<1%). Machine learning techniques might decrease the search path for optimal elements and compositions. The complete elimination of cobalt is an important research goal, but lower-cost cathodes with less cobalt must maintain performance. This trade-off will depend on the future supply of cobalt from both mining and recycling. [www.sciencemag.org/content/367/6481/979/suppl/DC1][14] 1. [↵][15]1. B. K. Sovacool , Extr. Ind. Soc. 6, 915 (2019). [OpenUrl][16] 2. [↵][17]1. J. Zheng et al ., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 8, 5537 (2017). [OpenUrl][18][CrossRef][19] 3. [↵][20]1. W. Li, 2. J. N. Reimers, 3. J. R. Dahn , Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 46, 3236 (1992). [OpenUrl][21][CrossRef][22][PubMed][23] 4. [↵][24]1. Y. Xiao et al ., Nano Energy 49, 77 (2018). [OpenUrl][25] 5. [↵][26]1. A. Ueda et al ., J. Electrochem. Soc. 141, 2010 (1994). [OpenUrl][27][Abstract/FREE Full Text][28] 6. [↵][29]1. T. Li et al ., Electrochem. Energy Rev. 2019, 1 (2019). [OpenUrl][30] 7. [↵][31]1. S. Wolff-Goodrich 1 , Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17, 21778 (2015). [OpenUrl][32][CrossRef][33] 8. [↵][34]1. J. Li, 2. A. Manthiram , Adv. Energy Mater. 9, 1902731 (2019). [OpenUrl][35] 9. [↵][36]1. E. Hu et al ., Nat. Energy 3, 690 (2018). [OpenUrl][37] 10. [↵][38]1. Z. Zhu et al ., Nat. Energy 1, 16111 (2016). [OpenUrl][39] 11. [↵][40]1. H. Li et al ., J. Electrochem. Soc. 166, A429 (2019). [OpenUrl][41][Abstract/FREE Full Text][42] 12. [↵][43]1. H. Li, 2. N. Zhang, 3. J. Li, 4. J. R. Dahn , J. Electrochem. Soc. 165, A2985 (2018). [OpenUrl][44][Abstract/FREE Full Text][45] Acknowledgments: We thank T. Liu for providing consultation on this topic. The work at Argonne National Laboratory was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Argonne National Laboratory is operated for the DOE Office of Science by UChicago Argonne, LLC, under contract no. DE-AC02-06CH11357. M.L. acknowledges financial support from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, University of Waterloo, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology. 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[19]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1021/acs.jpclett.7b02498&link_type=DOI [20]: #xref-ref-3-1 "View reference 3 in text" [21]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DPhysical%2BReview%252C%2BB%253A%2BCondensed%2BMatter%26rft.stitle%253DPhysical%2BReview%252C%2BB%253A%2BCondensed%2BMatter%26rft.aulast%253DLi%26rft.auinit1%253DW.%26rft.volume%253D46%26rft.issue%253D6%26rft.spage%253D3236%26rft.epage%253D3246%26rft.atitle%253DCrystal%2Bstructure%2Bof%2BLixNi2-xO2%2Band%2Ba%2Blattice-gas%2Bmodel%2Bfor%2Bthe%2Border-disorder%2Btransition.%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1103%252FPhysRevB.46.3236%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Apmid%252F10004039%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [22]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10.1103/PhysRevB.46.3236&link_type=DOI [23]: /lookup/external-ref?access_num=10004039&link_type=MED&atom=%2Fsci%2F367%2F6481%2F979.atom [24]: #xref-ref-4-1 "View reference 4 in text" [25]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNano%2BEnergy%26rft.volume%253D49%26rft.spage%253D77%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [26]: #xref-ref-5-1 "View reference 5 in text" [27]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DJournal%2Bof%2BThe%2BElectrochemical%2BSociety%26rft.stitle%253DJ.%2BElectrochem.%2BSoc.%26rft.aulast%253DUeda%26rft.auinit1%253DA.%26rft.volume%253D141%26rft.issue%253D8%26rft.spage%253D2010%26rft.epage%253D2014%26rft.atitle%253DSolid-State%2BRedox%2BReactions%2Bof%2BLiNi1%2B%252F%2B2Co1%2B%252F%2B2%2BO%2B2%2B%2B%2528%2BR%2B3m%2B%2529%2Bfor%2B4%2BVolt%2BSecondary%2BLithium%2BCells%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1149%252F1.2055051%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [28]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6MzoiamVzIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEwOiIxNDEvOC8yMDEwIjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjI6Ii9zY2kvMzY3LzY0ODEvOTc5LmF0b20iO31zOjg6ImZyYWdtZW50IjtzOjA6IiI7fQ== [29]: #xref-ref-6-1 "View 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{openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DAdv.%2BEnergy%2BMater.%26rft.volume%253D9%26rft.spage%253D1902731%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [36]: #xref-ref-9-1 "View reference 9 in text" [37]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNat.%2BEnergy%26rft.volume%253D3%26rft.spage%253D690%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [38]: #xref-ref-10-1 "View reference 10 in text" [39]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DNat.%2BEnergy%26rft.volume%253D1%26rft.spage%253D16111%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [40]: #xref-ref-11-1 "View reference 11 in text" [41]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DJournal%2Bof%2BThe%2BElectrochemical%2BSociety%26rft.stitle%253DJ.%2BElectrochem.%2BSoc.%26rft.aulast%253DLi%26rft.auinit1%253DH.%26rft.volume%253D166%26rft.issue%253D4%26rft.spage%253DA429%26rft.epage%253DA439%26rft.atitle%253DIs%2BCobalt%2BNeeded%2Bin%2BNi-Rich%2BPositive%2BElectrode%2BMaterials%2Bfor%2BLithium%2BIon%2BBatteries%253F%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1149%252F2.1381902jes%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [42]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6MzoiamVzIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEwOiIxNjYvNC9BNDI5IjtzOjQ6ImF0b20iO3M6MjI6Ii9zY2kvMzY3LzY0ODEvOTc5LmF0b20iO31zOjg6ImZyYWdtZW50IjtzOjA6IiI7fQ== [43]: #xref-ref-12-1 "View reference 12 in text" [44]: {openurl}?query=rft.jtitle%253DJournal%2Bof%2BThe%2BElectrochemical%2BSociety%26rft.stitle%253DJ.%2BElectrochem.%2BSoc.%26rft.aulast%253DLi%26rft.auinit1%253DH.%26rft.volume%253D165%26rft.issue%253D13%26rft.spage%253DA2985%26rft.epage%253DA2993%26rft.atitle%253DUpdating%2Bthe%2BStructure%2Band%2BElectrochemistry%2Bof%2BLixNiO2%2Bfor%2B0%2B%253C%253D%2Bx%2B%253C%253D%2B1%26rft_id%253Dinfo%253Adoi%252F10.1149%252F2.0381813jes%26rft.genre%253Darticle%26rft_val_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Ajournal%26ctx_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ver%253DZ39.88-2004%26url_ctx_fmt%253Dinfo%253Aofi%252Ffmt%253Akev%253Amtx%253Actx [45]: /lookup/ijlink/YTozOntzOjQ6InBhdGgiO3M6MTQ6Ii9sb29rdXAvaWpsaW5rIjtzOjU6InF1ZXJ5IjthOjQ6e3M6ODoibGlua1R5cGUiO3M6NDoiQUJTVCI7czoxMToiam91cm5hbENvZGUiO3M6MzoiamVzIjtzOjU6InJlc2lkIjtzOjEyOiIxNjUvMTMvQTI5ODUiO3M6NDoiYXRvbSI7czoyMjoiL3NjaS8zNjcvNjQ4MS85NzkuYXRvbSI7fXM6ODoiZnJhZ21lbnQiO3M6MDoiIjt9


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34

Understanding past and current graphic design trends is important for any designer. Find out what trends we expect to see more of this year!


Engagement score
16

Adobe Creative Cloud remains the venue of choice for any graphics professional, so learn how to use these industry-shaking apps to their fullest potential with the training in The 2020 Adobe Graphic Design Certification School. You can get this in-depth instruction right now at over 90 percent off its regular cost, only $49 from TNW Deals.


Engagement score
14
Website: dexigner.com
2020-11-29 09:23:57 UTC

Launched today, 2nd Skill is a unique online joint venture of The One Club and School of Visual Concepts (SVC) specifically developed to help traditional ad creatives - art directors, graphic designers, copywriters - to add new skill sets in UX Design, UI/Visual Design and Content Strategy/UX Writing to propel their second career.


Engagement score
12

It's national signing day. There are NBA transactions and trade rumors, and the NFL draft isn't far away. It's peak Photoshop SZN, when the memes, jersey swaps and recruiting graphics and the artists who make them will be all over social media feeds.


Engagement score
6

Nathalie Du Pasquier partnered with Italian tile makers Mutina on a bold, graphic tile collection called Mattonelle Margherita.


Engagement score
2

A graphic designer, who goes by the name of Dan T on Twitter, shares images of a couple of PS5 game box mockups that look great and are eco-friendly.


Engagement score
2
2020-11-13 19:46:51 UTC

Stay up-to-date on the latest web, logo, packaging and other graphic design trends.


Engagement score
1

Now that we are in the fall season, many people have changed decorations to fit the halloween and holiday theme. Jalen Clements, a junior  graphic design major at FAMU, has his own interior design business and is always read to make suggestions. Clements started his business, DryInterior, in March


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0

Latest Daredevil comic run is perfect for fans of the series


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0

The virtual pet website Neopets was instrumental in training a lot of young gamers in the arts of coding, graphic design, and writing.


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0

Exploring the ever-evolving world of graphic design, we discuss the emerging design trends for 2020 that will make BIG changes in the industry.


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0

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0

Graphic design trends to watch out for in 2021. Stay on trend with 13 predictions of what trends we expect to see in graphic design in 2021.


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0

The team behind our US election results tracker discuss how it came together, why readers around the world loved it, and how it came to be the most-viewed page ever on the Guardian’s website


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


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0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Ensure your visuals and layouts align with evolving trends with this overview.


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Through Feb. 19, Boston University’s Stone Gallery will reframe graphic design curricula all over the country with “As, Not For: Dethroning Our Absolutes.” This historical survey celebrates African American graphic designers who are rarely included in courses or conversations about the medium.


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


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0

Christiaan Huynen, founder and CEO of online graphic design marketplace DesignBro. The platform makes it easy for top-tier graphic designers.


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0

Seniors in Fairmont State University’s Graphic Design Technology program are showcasing their talent and skills through a virtual exhibition titled “Design Without Walls.” Katie Sickman, assistant professor of graphic design, said the senior show is a culmination of the hard work and effort put forth by the students over the years. “This serves as a […]


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0

Looking to keep your visuals fresh in the coming year? Check out these rising trends.


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0

Kering Eyewear is the world leader in Luxury and Hi-End Eyewear (Frames & Sunglasses), developing a unique 'ensemble' of powerful brands. We design...


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0

Six senior art majors specializing in graphic design at Mississippi State are showcasing their work in a Bachelor of Fine Arts thesis exhibition, available for viewing in-person or online.


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0

SUSSEX Co., Del. – Kelli Gehrke is a graphic designer, turned teacher, turned teacher of the year. Gehrke said, “Being a graphic designer who gets to teach other kids graphic design is so rewarding.” Gehrke has been teaching Graphic Design at Sussex Tech for 8 years now. She was actually working at a design firm when Sussex Tech approached and...


Engagement score
0

After a semester full of challenges and uncertainties, the Grand Valley State University Graphic Design class of Fall 2020 was able to hold their senior show.  Entitled “Emerge: Designs of the Future,” the showcase spanned from Nov. 16-19 in the GVSU Art Gallery where students had the ability to display their work for visitors and...


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0

Today only, as part of its Black Friday Deals, HUION (99% positive lifetime feedback) via Amazon is offering a selection of its graphic drawing tablets at up to 30% off. Our favorite from the sale is the Inspiroy H1060P Graphics Drawing Tablet at $46.89 shipped. You’d normally pay $67 and today’s deal matches the all-time low…


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0

Designers seem to be going round in circles.


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0

Nine Wayne State College graphic design students will showcase their skills during the annual senior portfolio review on Thursday, Nov. 19, from 3:30 to 4:45 p.m. in the Peterson Fine


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0
Website: usm.edu
2020-11-27 03:17:31 UTC


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0

Ensure your visuals and layouts align with evolving trends with this overview.


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0

CCC Information Services is hiring for a Graphic Designer in Chicago. Find more details about the job and how to apply at Built In Chicago.


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

The Nike and Red Bull logos are more alike than you think.


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0

Emanuele Abrate, a freelance graphic designer from Italy, took on the project to identify which fonts were used to design the logos of some of the world's biggest brands.


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0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Nine Wayne State College graphic design students will showcase their skills during the annual senior portfolio review on Thursday, Nov. 19, from 3:30 to 4:45 p.m. in the Peterson Fine


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Paul Rand, who designed iconic logos for IBM, Cummins, ABC and numerous other companies, designed a sleek logo for Ford that went unused.


Engagement score
0

Through Feb. 19, Boston University’s Stone Gallery will reframe graphic design curricula all over the country with “As, Not For: Dethroning Our Absolutes.” This historical survey celebrates African American graphic designers who are rarely included in courses or conversations about the medium.


Engagement score
0

Looking to keep your visuals fresh in the coming year? Check out these rising trends.


Engagement score
0

Christiaan Huynen, founder and CEO of online graphic design marketplace DesignBro. The platform makes it easy for top-tier graphic designers.


Engagement score
0

Seniors in Fairmont State University’s Graphic Design Technology program are showcasing their talent and skills through a virtual exhibition titled “Design Without Walls.” Katie Sickman, assistant professor of graphic design, said the senior show is a culmination of the hard work and effort put forth by the students over the years. “This serves as a […]


Engagement score
0

Six senior art majors specializing in graphic design at Mississippi State are showcasing their work in a Bachelor of Fine Arts thesis exhibition, available for viewing in-person or online.


Engagement score
0

SUSSEX Co., Del. – Kelli Gehrke is a graphic designer, turned teacher, turned teacher of the year. Gehrke said, “Being a graphic designer who gets to teach other kids graphic design is so rewarding.” Gehrke has been teaching Graphic Design at Sussex Tech for 8 years now. She was actually working at a design firm when Sussex Tech approached and...


Engagement score
0

Kering Eyewear is the world leader in Luxury and Hi-End Eyewear (Frames & Sunglasses), developing a unique 'ensemble' of powerful brands. We design...


Engagement score
0

Animals in suits, anyone?


Engagement score
0

Designers seem to be going round in circles.


Engagement score
0

Through Feb. 19, Boston University’s Stone Gallery will reframe graphic design curricula all over the country with “As, Not For: Dethroning Our Absolutes.” This historical survey celebrates African American graphic designers who are rarely included in courses or conversations about the medium.


Engagement score
0

Looking to keep your visuals fresh in the coming year? Check out these rising trends.


Engagement score
0

Christiaan Huynen, founder and CEO of online graphic design marketplace DesignBro. The platform makes it easy for top-tier graphic designers.


Engagement score
0

Seniors in Fairmont State University’s Graphic Design Technology program are showcasing their talent and skills through a virtual exhibition titled “Design Without Walls.” Katie Sickman, assistant professor of graphic design, said the senior show is a culmination of the hard work and effort put forth by the students over the years. “This serves as a […]


Engagement score
0

Six senior art majors specializing in graphic design at Mississippi State are showcasing their work in a Bachelor of Fine Arts thesis exhibition, available for viewing in-person or online.


Engagement score
0

SUSSEX Co., Del. – Kelli Gehrke is a graphic designer, turned teacher, turned teacher of the year. Gehrke said, “Being a graphic designer who gets to teach other kids graphic design is so rewarding.” Gehrke has been teaching Graphic Design at Sussex Tech for 8 years now. She was actually working at a design firm when Sussex Tech approached and...


Engagement score
0

Kering Eyewear is the world leader in Luxury and Hi-End Eyewear (Frames & Sunglasses), developing a unique 'ensemble' of powerful brands. We design...


Engagement score
0

After a semester full of challenges and uncertainties, the Grand Valley State University Graphic Design class of Fall 2020 was able to hold their senior show.  Entitled “Emerge: Designs of the Future,” the showcase spanned from Nov. 16-19 in the GVSU Art Gallery where students had the ability to display their work for visitors and...


Engagement score
0

Today only, as part of its Black Friday Deals, HUION (99% positive lifetime feedback) via Amazon is offering a selection of its graphic drawing tablets at up to 30% off. Our favorite from the sale is the Inspiroy H1060P Graphics Drawing Tablet at $46.89 shipped. You’d normally pay $67 and today’s deal matches the all-time low…


Engagement score
0

By 2025, New York's Staten Island will be fortified by a towering seawall running 5.3 miles along the coast, an engineering feat designed to ward off a growing threat.


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0

By 2025, New York's Staten Island will be fortified by a towering seawall running 5.3 miles along the coast, an engineering feat designed to ward off a growing threat.


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0

By 2025, New York's Staten Island will be fortified by a towering seawall running 5.3 miles along the coast, an engineering feat designed to ward off a growing threat.


Engagement score
0

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